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To see the specificity of formation of ethics of Jesus, we shall investigate world-views of Zealots. Zealot had been a milleniaristic movements as well as Middle Age heresies. As we see their attitude to human life, material goods and archives, the Zealots believed that the time of history had come to the end. In the deposited Jerusalem they did the actions which contradicted to Halaha, thus showing the fact that it also had come to the end. Their attitude to the temple had been ambivalent – on the one side they believed that the Most High would save the Temple, but on the other side they questioned the sacrality of the Temple's space. The spatio-temporal continuum in the deposited Jerusalem had been probably perceived as some intermediate state between this present world and the Olam ha-Baha, descending from Heavens. The overcoming of the division of the worlds into phenomenal and transcendent had a natural social consequence the rejection of personalism. Zealot had been a milleniaristic movements as well as Middle Age heresies. As we see their attitude to human life, material goods and archives, the Zealots believed that the time of history had come to the end. In the deposited Jerusalem they did the actions which contradicted to Halaha, thus showing the fact that it also had come to the end. Their attitude to the temple had been ambivalent – on the one side they believed that the Most High would save the Temple, but on the other side they questioned the sacrality of the Temple's space. The spatio-temporal continuum in the deposited Jerusalem had been probably perceived as some intermediate state between this present world and the Olam ha-Baha, descending from Heavens. The overcoming of the division of the worlds into phenomenal and transcendent had a natural social consequence the rejection of personalism [17, р. 363–371].

E. Ksemann gives to apocalyptic a predominating role in establishment of Christianity [14, р. 82–102]. I. Weiss [28] and A. Schweitzer [26] reconstructed an image of historical Jesus as an apocalyptic preacher. From their point of view, Jesus believed that already in his time there would be an intervention of God in history and Olam ha-Ba will come [9, р. 14–20]. According to A. Schweitzer, Jesus’ expectations haven't come true and he went to death, in confidence that then God would be compelled to pass to drastic measures. In this case Jesus' views are close to world-views of Zealots. The difference is only in their attitude to ethics. Jesus' eschatological concept is reflected in the Gospel of Mark 13. However unlike classical Judaic apocalyptic, is specified in the given fragment it, that terms aren't known by anybody, except God. C. Dodd has developed the theory of realization of Eschaton [7]. According to his opinion Jesus believed that the Bible prophecy was already fulfilled.

A. Schweitzer and C. Dodd represent two extreme points of view.

A median and the most acceptable one is between. Jesus and the first Christians had been convinced that though the old epoch had not been finished yet, the new one had been beginning, i.e. two worlds if Jewish apocalyptic eschatology were crossed [1, р. 761– 764]. However, if A. Schweitzer theory is at least partially correct, there is a problem of ethics of Jesus. As we could be convinced earlier, the prospect of the fast end of history and desire to accelerate it has provoked Zealots to violate Halakha in a pointed manner. According to some researchers, the expectation of the fast end of history deprives ethical judgments of sense [12, р. 28]. J. T. Sanders writes that apocalyptic marks leaving from ethical responsibility and refusal of the decision of social problems [22, р. 115]. The term for “apocalypse” is not attested as a title or genre definition in the extant corpus of Hebrew or Jewish Aramaic documents, but some early Hebrew, Syrian, and Arabic texts may contain rudimentary evidence in favor of the existence of a Hebrew or Jewish Aramaic equivalent for the term. Moreover, the reconstruction of it can help to understand better a certain widespread apocalyptic imagery, which must be closely connected to the semantics of this term [15, р. 540–550].

Therefore, in the context of our research the attitude to ethics of Jesus and early Christians is interesting.

The first Christians didn't consider themselves as adherents of new religion. They existed in the space of the Jewish culture and considered their religious movement as fulfillment of Judaic prophecies, the beginning of eschatological Israel. One of theories concerning a genre of the Gospel is based on their origin from Jewish Midrash. S. Safrai [20, р. 413–437] related early Christians to movement of Chassidey, existing between I century BC and III century AD. It was close to Pharisees, but isn't identical to them. Movement of Chassidey differed by special style of life, belief in miracles of healing and casting out of demons, characteristic for early prophets, such as Elijah and Elisha in the Bible [19, р. 14–23]. Jesus, as well as Elijah or Elisha, didn’t differ from surrounding people. Those miracles about which the Scripture tells in the cases of Jesus or Elisha, were intended to help simple individuals, instead of all people, as for example, Joshua's miracle at Gibeon (Josh 10:12-14). These miracles have no theological sense similar to the miracle on Red Sea, which caused the people to believe Moses (Ex 14:31). Similar legends can be found and in later Jewish tradition. For example stories about Honiah ha-Meagel and about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa [21, р. 126– 153]. But blossom of this genre begins during an epoch of Hasidism which’s literature is overflowed by stories about miracles of wellknown Tzadiks and Kabbalists, such as Rabbi Isaak Luria and Baal Shem Tov [19, р. 20].

In complexities of the real world eschatology provides a consolation. Prospect of the Judgment as the basis for ethics is present at the Apocalypse (Rev 20:11-15), but the Judgment is postponed. The Apocalypse expresses confidence of the moral order of the Universe that in general is characteristic for the apocalyptic literature which is paying much attention to theodicy [23, р. 331]. G. Sholem compares Christianity and Sabbateans, as cultural phenomena [25, р. 287– 324]. In 1648 Sabbatai Zevi has proclaimed himself the Messiah to pass in Islam subsequently. As well as Sabbatai Zevi, the majority of his followers were Marranos (the Spanish Jews violently baptized).

The Messiah-apostate for Marranos, compelled to conduct a double way of life, was glorification of fact of recreancy so tormenting their conscience In both cases (Christianity and Sabbateans) the paradox of suffering of the Messiah is excessive. In both cases the mystical direction crystallizes around a certain event which finds the value from the fact of its paradoxicality. Following the given logic, the humiliated and crucified Messiah of Christians is a glorification of humiliation of the Jews of times of Roman Empire. What they have made with Jesus was reflection of, how his first (and later – Roman) followers felt themselves.

The death of Jesus in the Gospel of Mark is much more painful, human, and realistic than in other Gospels. Jesus on the cross does not victorious songs as the Cantabrians described by Marcus did. It is the way of making the point that Jesus' obedience in his hard and painful death fulfills the plan of God and transforms the expected way in which the Messiah would come to power [6, р. 545–554]. Concerns about eschatological vengeance do not justify the coercion of nonretributive meaning from texts of Gospel that foresee divinely authorized retribution.

Resume. The direct connection of ethics of Jesus with ethics of Zealots can be obviously traced. This connection is caused by special Jewish mentality of times of actual eschatology. However there is also an essential difference, it consists in Jesus' words that “our fight is not against flesh and blood”. Actions according to the paradigm of overcoming of the Evil through sufferings, giving of the phenomenon of suffering to Judgment of God and glorification by means of this both suffering and suffering person is in the channel of Judaic messianic tradition. If Zealots proclaimed the history end, killing, plundering and burning archives, and then have provoked Temple burning, Jesus, being also in opposition to modern Temple service, expelled dealers from there (Mark 11:15-17). However His ethics expressed in the Sermon on the Mount became the most important things in his anti-behavior. It would seem that requirements not compatible to life “Love to the enemy” (Matt 5:44) destroyed justice principles, given in the Old Testament. However it became declaration of the end of history, the end of that social time which existed before coming of the Messiah.

Bibliography 1. Allison D.K. Eschatology // Jesus and the Gospel. – Moscow, 2003.

2. Auerbach E. Mimesis. Dargestellte Wirklichkeit in der abendlndischen Literatur. – Mnchen, 1967.

3. Averintsev S. Hebrew literature // History of the world literature. – Moscow, 1983.

4. Beyerle S. Apokalyptik und Biblische Theologie // Neue Zeitschrift fr systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie. – 2010. – № 3(52).

5. Collins J.J. The Apocalyptic Imagination. – New-York, 1984.

6. Collins A. Y. Mark’s Interpretation of the Death of Jesus // Journal of Biblical Literature. – 2009. – № 128.

7. Dodd C. H. The Apostolic Preaching and its developments. – New-York, 1937.

8. Eliade M. Geschichte der religisen Ideen. Bd. I. Freiburg – Basel, 1978.

9. Geddert T.J. Apocalyptic doctrines // Jesus and the Gospel. – Moscow, 2003.

10. Hanson P. The Dawn of Apocalyptic. – Philadelphia, 1979.

11. Heidegger M. Sein und Zeit // Beitrge zur Philosophie. – Frankfurt am Main, 1989.

12. Houlden J.L. Ethics and the New Testament. – New-York, 1933.

13. Huizinga J. Homo Ludens: Vom Ursprung der Kultur im Spiel. – Hamburg, 1956.

14. Ksemann E. The beginning of Christian Theology // New Testament Questions of Today. Philadelphia, 1969.

15. Kulik A. Genre without a Name: Was There a Hebrew Term for ‘Apocalypse’ // Journal for the Study of Judaism. – 2009. – № 4–5.

16. Levine B.A. On the social aspects of sacrifice: a paradigm from the Hebrew Bible // Revue Biblique. – 2010. – № 3 (117).

17. Matushanskaya J. Zealots’ World View // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. – 2011. – № 3.

18. Moltman J. Wissenschaft und Weisheit: Zum Gesprch zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Theologie. – Gtersloh, 2002.

19. Rofe A. The prophetical stories: the narratives about the prophets in the Hebrew Bible, their literary types and history. – Jerusalem, 1997.

20. Safrai S. Jesus and the Hasidic Movement // The Jews in the HellenisticRoman World Studies in Memory of Menachem Stern. – Jerusalem, 1996.

21. Sarfatti G.B. Pious Men, Men of Deeds, and the Early Prophets // Tarbis. – 1957. – № 26.

22. Sanders J.T. Ethics in the New Testament: Change and Development. – Philadelphia, 1975.

23. Shrage W. The Ethics of the New Testament. – Philadelphia, 1988.

24. Smirnov A. Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews about Jesus Christ times. – Kazan, 1899.

25. Sholem G. Major Trends of Jewish Mysticism. – London, 1955.

26. Schweitzer A. The Quest of the Historical Jesus. – New-York, 1906.

27. Weinberg J.P. Introduction in the Tanah. Prophets. – Moscow, 2003.

28. Weiss J. Jesus’s Proclamation of Kingdom of God. – Philadelphia, 1971.

29. Weissman Z. Pentateuch of Moses: the historical-literary review // Introduction in Bible Studies. V. 6. Tel – Aviv: Open University of Israel, 2006.

ИДЕОЛОГИЯ СВОБОДЫ И ДЕГРАДАЦИЯ ХРИСТИАНСКОЙ КОНЦЕПЦИИ БРАКА С. Ю. Девятых Витебский государственный ордена Дружбы народов медицинский университет, г. Витебск, Беларусь Summary. Religion and ideology are considered as the basis of sexual ethics. It is shown that the ideology of the Christian concept of freedom is opposed to the marriage.

Key words: family; marriage; sexuality; sexual culture; sexual ethics;

social evolution of the family.

Религия предполагает глубоко личностную регуляцию поведения человека через обещание этического воздаяния, а в оценке людей и их поступков она прибегает к устойчивым критериям – понятиям о должном, что и позволило человечеству перейти от ситуативно-конкретной регуляции поведения к обобщенно-абстрактной, ценностно-осмысленной, вследствие чего человек из автомата, следующего малоосмысленному шаблону, превратился, апеллируя к богу, в ответственно регулирующего свое поведение.

Библия содержит два описания сотворения человека.

В одном из них, кратком и более древнем, читаем: «И сотворил Бог человека по образу Своему, по образу Божию сотворил его;

мужчину и женщину сотворил их. И благословил их Бог, и сказал им: плодитесь и размножайтесь, и наполняйте землю»» (Быт. 1: 27, 28). Здесь, как нам думается, снимается свойственный мифологическому мышлению конфликт между полами, подчеркивается единство человеческого рода и утверждается смысл двуполости – репродуктивная сексуальность.

Библейский текст утверждает переход к новому типу семьи, к новым принципам ее организации, когда на первый план выходят не кровные связи, а взаимоотношения супругов между собой. Теперь они не конкурирующие представители разных родов, а члены новой социальной группы – семейного союза, обустроенного по принципам взаимодополнительности и единоначалия. Особенно четко это представлено в пространном описании из второй главы: «Поэтому оставит человек отца своего и мать свою, и прилепится к жене своей; и будут [два] одна плоть» (Быт. 2: 24).

Новый Завет, уравнял женщину с мужчиной перед Богом, сделав ее полноправным членом богочеловеческой общины – церкви. По мнению Т. Парсонса [3], именно христианству (а не эллинистическому язычеству, не иудаизму) удалось обеспечить победу принципа «семейной» организации общества над родовой его организацией.

М. Джеймс [1] в рамках христианской традиции выделяет три основные точки зрения на брак. Первая из них говорит о том, что брак – это дар Божий, а его цель – деторождение, при этом создание большой семьи (принцип репродуктивной сексуальности) – священная обязанность супругов. Вторая точка зрения сводилась к тому, что брак – это необходимое зло, что лучше не вступать в брак, а к нему следует прибегать, чтобы не сгорать от любовной страсти. И, наконец, третья точка зрения сводилась к тому, чтобы полностью уклоняться от брака в пользу девственности и целомудрия. Следует отметить, что при всей разности подходов христианская церковь последовательно отстаивала ценность брака, репродуктивной сексуальности и добрачного целомудрия.

В развитии западного общества огромная роль принадлежит религии. Вместе с тем религиозные догматы сами по себе создавали только общую этическую предпосылку для практического поведения людей. Внедрение религиозных критериев и вытеснение мифологического было долгим процессом. В практической жизни людей религиозное стало рациональноэтическим: долг перед Богом менялся на долг перед людьми, при этом смысл и оценки, заданные религией, сохранялись, и, таким образом, сохранялась общая линия культуры.

В целом традиционно-религиозное мышление позволяет видеть мир только целостным, осмысливать его нерасчлененными блоками, а оценивать для него – значит морализировать. Религиозное сознание требует веры, делает возможным истолкование всего сущего только в терминах добра и зла, истинных и неистинных ценностей.

Религиозное миропонимание в процессе секуляризации уступает место осмыслению мира при помощи идеологии. Секуляризация – это освобождение человека от опеки религиозных и метафизических систем, смена его интересов: он отворачивается от иных миров и обращается к этому миру, и как следствие – развитие естественных наук, демократических институтов и культурного плюрализма. Хотя христианский идеал семьи долгое время оставался определяющим, восприятие ее в качестве феномена, имеющего отношение не только к земной жизни, но и к вечности, постепенно уходит.

Уже И. Кант говорит о браке как контракте по взаимной передаче в пользование соответствующих частей тела, отнеся его к области вещно-личного права. Он полагает, что в нем (в браке) соединяется владение внешним объектом как вещью и пользование им как личностью. И заключает: если естественное общение полов основывается на законах природы, то правовые формы – на законах разума [1, с. 286].

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