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ETHICS OF JESUS IN COMPARISON WITH ETHICS OF ZEALOTS J. Matushanskaya Kazan National Research Technological University Kazan, The Republic of Tatarstan, Russia Summary. The direct connection of ethics of Jesus Christ in the Bible with ethics of Zealots can be obviously traced. This connection is caused by special Judaic mentality of times of actual eschatology. However there is also an essential difference, it is in Jesus' words that “our fight is not against flesh and blood”.
In given article the problem of the relation of ethics of Jesus and ethical views of Zealots is investigated. The behavior is based on ethical views. The structure of social space is set by ethics. People perceive their space as open space and border. Bible expression “You have put my feet on a vast place” (Ps. 30:9) means “You have given me freedom”. Open space and border are integral parts of human life. However nobody can be completely open to the world, without being endangered to be destroyed by this world. Therefore the person needs the protected and limited space, symbol of which is the house. According to J. Moltman, the vital space is necessary to be considered not only geographically, but also from the social and ethical point of view . The sensation of the person of his or her place in the world M. Heidegger names by German word Da-sein – “herelife” or “life-in” [11, р. 242]. This social space supplements ethical space. Freedom can't be without space of possible, and ethics can't exist without decision-making space. In this ethical space the person is simultaneously presents the subject and object. In social space compatibility with the life, named social justice, allows to the person to be oriented. In ethical space the person feels need for moral laws.
J. Huizinga writes that sacred gravity reigns in all that concerns the rights. However the etymology of words “right”, “court”, “law” is defined by verbal area of acceptance, establishment, support, order, choice, division and association, establishment of the agreement, obligation. All this lies in semantic sphere of game [13, р. 89–101]. Legal proceedings are disputes on justice and injustice, correctness and a wrongfulness, victory and defeat. In the ancient time the chance and game element leaves on the foreground. So, in the Bible priests used for understanding of divine will urim and thummim (Exod 28:3). On an order of king Saul they cast lots about destiny of his son Jonathan (1 Sam 14:42). By the lot they divided the land between tribes of Israel (Num 29:55). By a lot the day of destruction of the people of Israel in the book of Esther was defined (Esth 3:7). The term “Torah” itself matters not only the doctrine and the law, but also a prediction of the oracle [29, р. 20]. Both legal proceedings and custom of the Divine court root in practice of agonal decisions of disputes in general. They are inspired by concepts of justice and injustice, they ascend to legal sphere which, being is seen in the light of divine will, ascends to religion sphere. In this case the fortune-telling can be considered both as insight and as dialogue with the Deity. It is an original experiment, analog of research experiment during New Time. Law establishments here present logic substantiation of ethical standards. It is the recorded game. It the most of cultures, participation in the cult is an index of being a member of the religious community. Instead of being an onerous duty it was the most welcome activity, and families would be motivated to qualify for it. This was true for ancient Israel [16, р. 337–344]. The original culture can't exist without the game content since it implies assumes certain self-restriction, perception of itself in the certain voluntary accepted borders. Fair game in the field of culture is an equivalent of respectableness.
The social and ethical space of the land of Israel had been defined by the idea of justice. Justice is the form of interdependence between people and society. Independence in the sense of freedom from oppression from others is one of justice conditions. However it is impossible to recognize neither possible, nor fair that kind of independence, which is understood as isolation and separation from human community. The doctrine of prophets contains new interpretation of the Torah, new understanding of the human person and new interpretation of faith. Prophets have transformed monolatry into monotheism, nationalism into universalism, they have made religion not only an execution of ceremonies, but also the maintenance of right life. The basic line of the doctrine of prophets is indissoluble unity of religion and morals which starts with the Bible concept of God. Transition from polytheism to monotheism is the irreversible lip affecting all elements of religious thinking. The first of the basic ethical principles which were protected by prophets, is righteousness. Righteousness, expressed in social justice, prophets considered as the Supreme law of the Universe and the major attribute of God.
Universal character of Divine righteousness means a recognition of one universal valid norm in relations of God and the person and of the person with the neighbor. Prophet Micah has reflected it: “He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to walk humbly with your God” (Mic 6:8).
Justice of God extends both on the Jews and on foreigners in the Land of Israel: “For if you truly amend your doings, if you truly act justly one with another, if you do not oppress the alien, the orphan, and the widow, or shed innocent blood in this place, and if you do go after other gods to your own hurt, then I will dwell with you in this place, in the land that I gave of old to your ancestors forever and ever” (Jer 7:5-7). Ideas about the general ethical standards for everybody in turn generate the idea about unity of mankind, and infringement of such unity is infringement of Divine justice: “Thus says the Lord of hosts: Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to the another; do not oppress the widow, the orphan, the alien, or the poor; and do not devise evil in your hearts against one other” (Zech 7:9-10).
Justice results in reward in the history: “Therefore strong peoples will glorify you; cities of ruthless nations will fear you. For you have been a refuge to the poor, a refuge to the needy in their distress, a shelter from the rainstorm and a shade from the heat” (Isa 25:3-4).
And if the people of God don't observe divine social justice rules they will lose the favor of the Most High. “Your iniquities have turned these away, and your sins have deprived you of good. For scoundrels are found among my people; they take over the goods of others. Like fowlers they set a trap; they catch human beings. Like a cage full of birds, their houses are full of treachery; therefore they have become great and rich, they have grown fat and sleek. They know no limits in deeds of wickedness; they do not judge with justice the cause of the orphan, to make it prosper, and they do not defend the rights of the needy” (Jer 5:25-28). It is connected with the fact that in justice, according to prophets, is knowledge of the Most High is manifested.
The following text testifies to it: “Are you a king because you compete in cedar Did not your father eat and drink and do justice and righteousness Then it was well with him. He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well. Is not this to know me Says the Lord” (Jer 22:15-16). Because God himself is the fair Defender of all people: “When the poor and needy seek water, and there is none, and their tongue is parched with thirst, I the LORD will answer them, I the God of Israel will not forsake them” (Isa 41:17). For this He is worthy of praise and honoring: “Sing to the Lord, praise to the Lord! For he has delivered the life of the needy from the hands of evildoers” (Jer 20:13).
The Biblical philosophy of history is penetrated by the idea of incompleteness of the world which represents “open system”: the movement is not circular, but ascending. Prophets were the first who have seen the time moving forward. All narration of the Bible is constructed as a movement to a definite purpose - to the historical ideal defined in a Judaism as “geula” (redemption). The programmed ness of historical process gives sense to events, according to M.Eliade [8, р. 325–326], Since the time of Jewish prophets historic facts are “situations” in which person appears face to face with God. Historical events have got religious-philosophical sense. Political defeats have turned in “negative Theophanous”, to “anger of the Lord”. Reconsideration becomes a general method of comprehension of the reality [2, р. 25–27].Reconsideration of human history has given the historical model of change of world empires in the Book of Daniel's which has become a basis of Judaic apocalyptic of the epoch of Hellenism.
The idea, that the history had the beginning, logically leads the ancient Jews to the conclusion it would sometime come to the end.
Destruction of I Temple and the Babylonian captivity became the first universal catastrophe marking the end of this world and judgment of God over it. The considering of the Last Day of Ezekiel as a day of a divine miracle in cosmic- universal and locallyparticularistic aspects, according to I. Weinberg, is traditional in Hebrew prophecies [27, р. 241–243]. The sacred war in Ezekiel's prophesies is an attribute of the Last Day. According to prophecies of Ezekiel, the last war will come to the end with defeat of Gogh and his armies (Ezek 39:4), after which there comes time of divine rescue, returning of Diaspora and David's accession (Ezek 36:8). Resurrection of the dead in “that day” is a single act (Ezek 37:12). In the views of Ezekiel, according to J.Weinberg, the resurrection of the dead as the national-state phenomenon is connected with resurrection and rule of David as an embodiment of the restored national and state unity, but not as the Messiah, the concept of whom hadn't been definitively generated yet in those days [27, р. 243]. However a more late interpretation of this prophecy had led to occurrence of the image of the Messiah from David's family. Messianic hopes of the Jews put in the Pentateuch, Psalms and Prophets have found bright reflection in religion of the Jews of the epoch of actual eschatology. Josephus writes about incidental messianic movements. Acts of Apostles 5:34-40 also tells about some pseudo-Messiahs. Political interests in this case get irrational character that was reflected in creation of the apocryphal apocalyptic literature.
According to the translator of apocryphal stories A. Smirnov, the Jews of epoch of II Temple have transferred their concepts about inevitable constant political conflicts to sphere of apocalyptic. An apocalypse theme is the mystical secrets of the world revealing themselves “on another side” of history, sacred war of metaphysical Good with metaphysical Evil which the Jewish people will conduct under leadership of the Messiah [24, р. 191–192]. S. S. Averintsev [3, р. 300–301] writes that the imagined observant position out of history is necessary to the apocalyptic author for judgment of history.
In this case distinction between the present, past and future is removed and by that the history also is present in implied form (potentially). This model of history is that thread on which historical events of the Jewish history in the Bible text are strung. In a similar way Augustine considered that the human history is developed in two plans – semantic and event-trigger. There existed two senses for readers in the Bible: sensus mysticus and sensus judaicus (the literal sense which had been summed up in comments of Rashi). This literal sense in the Middle Ages also was called historical. In spite of the fact that in the Middle Ages the historical sense of the Scripture was considered as “Judaic”, Judaic apocalypses of Epoch of II Temple tried to present to the reader
sense of history.
The ancient Jewish apocalyptic had been an important contribution to the development of a Biblical Theology, insofar as one proceeds from the open canon, which takes into account writings and data from outside the Old and New Testament. With using of the historical-critical method, “structures” become visible in the apocalyptic literature which have an important meaning for theology of both the Old and New Testament. Because of the mutually evaluable structure of “reversal”, transcending concept plays a central role in the apocalyptic. The Old Testament judgment prophecy serves as a material exegetical paradigm. It was in connection with the insight, that declarations of “guilt” and “judgment” in New Testament were interpreted first through an “apocalyptic filter” [4, р. 232–246]. The philosophy of history put in apocryphal eschatology, is constructed on prophetical tradition of post-captivity period . Most of all Judaic apocalyptic reminds by the form Book of Daniel and Book of Zechariah. The major apocalyptic compositions, which have been not included in the Bible canon, were always attributed to the wellknown Bible characters that should give them authority and attract wide audience. For example, Book of Enoch, 4th book of Ezdra, Last Wills of 12 Patriarchs, Solomon's Psalms. Apocryphal apocalypses can be divided in two groups: describing travel to other world, and not describing these travel. Apocalypses of the second type contain the historical review in which all history breaks into the periods [5, р. 5]. Thus abstraction taking place at similar perception of history allows to reveal some philosophical aspects of world-wide historical process.
According to A. Smirnov [24, р. 178–180], all Judaic apocalyptic is an attempt to get into secrets of the future on the basis of a prophecy of Jeremiah about 70 years of the Babylon captivity. The mankind history appears in form of “weeks”. For the best understanding the historic facts are methodically dismembered on categories, historical process is understood in numbers and mathematical formulas (four monarchies, seventy weeks, anniversaries), and the historical phenomena are represented in symbols and signs. So, horns always symbolize force, and the chronology consists of numbers, multiple 7 and 10. In apocalyptic opens the transcendental reality, as time (as eschatological rescue is represented in it), and spatial (as it covers other world).
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