Министерство образования Российской Федерации Воронежский государственный университет Исторический факультет Кафедра страноведения и иностранных языков ROMAN BRITAIN Методические указания по английскому языку Для студентов 1,2 курса д/о исторического факультета Составитель :
Н.В.Мартемьянова ВОРОНЕЖ 2002 2 TEXT I THE CONQUEST Vocabulary notes to launch - начинать, предпринимать asset - ценный вклад loose - неопределенный rivalry - соперничество, конкуренция to annex - присоединять whilst - пока inland - внутрь, вглубь to absorb - поглощать Pre - reading Task.
Before reading the text answer the question;
What do you know about the Roman conquest of Britain THE CONQUEST In 43 AD, the Emperor Claudius launched the invasion of Britain. A land of agricultural and mineral wealth, it was potentially a major asset to the Empire.
Britain then was not a nation, as we understand the term today, but rather a loose amalgam of indigenous tribes and more recent Celtic invaders and settlers.
Some, especially those in the South East, were pro-Roman due to trade with the Empire and inter-tribal rivalry.
It was Claudius who exploited this support to secure his position in Rome by annexing new lands. The invasion was led by Aulus Plautius and consisted of four legions; II Augusta, IX Hispana, XIII Gemina, and XX Valeria. Together with auxiliary troops, these four legions totaled approximately 50,000 men.
They quickly occupied the South East and then moved inland. Three legions advanced north whilst the II Augusta, commanded by the future Emperor Vespasian, moved South West by land and sea.
Within a generation much of what we know of England and Wales had been absorbed into the province of Britannia.
3 Reading Comprehension Tasks 1. Are the following sentences about the text true or false If there is not enough information, say don't know.
1) In 43 AD the Emperor Vespasian launched the invasion of Britain.
2) A major asset to the Empire was gold.
3) Britain of that time was a strong nation.
4) Britain then consisted of a different tribes.
5) Claudius wanted Rome to be stronger by annexing new lands.
6) Four legions occupied the South East in 10 days.
7) The II Augusta commanded by Claudius moved south west by land and sea.
2. Try to complete the following sentences, if possible, in your own words without looking into the text.
1) The Emperor Claudius started his invasion of ….
2) Britain was not a nation then, but ….
3) Some were pro-Roman due to ….
4) Claudius needed to secure his position by ….
5) … these four legions totaled 50,000 men.
6) They quickly occupied the South East and then ….
7) The II Augusta moved South West by ….
3. Answer the following questions:
1) Who and when launched the invasion of Britain 2) Why did he decide to attack Britain What was the reason for that 3) How do we understand the term 'nation' today 4) Was Britain of that time a strong nation Why (Why not) 5) Was there inter-tribal rivalry in the Empire 6) What did Claudius need 7) Who led the invasion 4. Put fifteen questions to the text. Arrange them as a plan.
Vocabulary and Grammar Tasks.
1. Find in the text the English for:
Завоевание, богатство, смесь, племя, местные жители, благодаря, межплеменной, использовать, сохранять, дополнительный, насчитывать, император, поколение.
2. a) Look at the following list of words taken from the text. Discuss them and put into two groups: adjectives and adverbs.
Adjectives Adverbs b) Form, if possible, the adverbs from adjectives and the adjectives from adverbs.
3. Fill each gap with a verb given below in an appropriate form.
1) In 43AD, the Emperor Caudius the invasion of Britain.
2) This support _ by Claudius who needed to secure his position in Rome.
3) This invasion _ by Aulus Platius and _ of four legions.
4) Four legions _ approximately 50,000 men.
5) They _ the South East and then _ inland.
6) Three legions _ north whilst the II Augusta _South West by land and sea.
7) The II Augusta _ by Vespasian.
To advance, to launch, to be commanded, to move(2), to be exploited, to total, to be led, to occupy, to consist.
4. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the constructions It is (was) … that..., It is(was) … who …, What … is ….
1) It was they who told us the news.
2) It was not until I reminded him that he brought me my book.
3) It is the northeast in the United States, which is called New England.
4) There was the natural abundance of land that energized the industrial and economic growth.
5) That was Roosevelt who increased government supervision over business and industry.
6) It was Mayor of Detroit who initiated work relief for the unemployed.
7) It was Theodore Roosevelt who changed the Spanish conflict from a war to liberate Cuba to the building of a union.
Find in the text the sentence(s) with the same construction(s). Translate it (them) into Russian.
5. Rewrite the following sentences using It is(was) … that(who) ….
1) Emperor Claudius launched the invasion of Britain.
2) A land and mineral wealth was a major asset to the Empire.
3) Annexing new lands helped Claudius to secure his position in Rome.
4) Aulus Plautius led the invasion.
5) II Augusta moved Sou6th West.
6) Vespasian became Emperor.
7) The Romans occupied the South East of Britain.
Discussion Task Prove that there were some invasions of Britain. Can you explain the reasons Why do you think it was important for the Romans to conquer Britain Explain your point of view to the class.
TEXT TWO THE CELTS Vocabulary notes hereditary(adj.) - наследный warrior(n) - воин warlord(n) - военачальник peasantry(n) - крестьянство warfare(n) - приемы ведения ferocious(adj.) - жестокий войны spear(n) - копье boundary(n) - граница shield(n) - щит alliance(n) - союз, союзник chariot(n) - колесница adornment(n) - украшение terrain(n) - территория, местность Pre - reading Task Answer the question: What are the most important Celtic invasions Write down 5-6 sentences.
THE CELTS Celtic tribes led by hereditary Kings and warlords, supported by a warrior aristocracy to whom the mass of the peasantry was enslaved.
Warfare was ever present with tribal boundaries and alliances changing constantly. There were no standing armies, and warriors were driven mostly by prospect of individual glory.
Confrontations tended to be brief, and personal adornment was lavish-ornate helmets and extravagant torque's (neck-rings).Body amour was rarely worn.
To appear more ferocious, warriors painted their bodies and washed their hair with lime. Their weapons were the spear, shield and long slashing sword.
Chariots were sometimes used.
In set-piece battles, Celtic warriors were rarely any match for the Roman army; but in difficult terrain, the Celts excelled in the tactics of guerrilla warfare.
Reading Comprehension Tasks 1. Read the text again if necessary, and say who were the Celts led by;
what helped the Celts to look more ferocious;
why the Celts were rarely any match for the Roman army;
in which situation the Celts were better than the Romans.
2. Put questions to the text. Arrange them as a plan.
3. Tell the class about the Celts according to your plan.
Vocabulary and Grammar Tasks 1. Find in the text the English for:
возглавлять, поддерживать, порабощать, армия, перспектива, слава, шлем, доспехи, достойный противник, оружие, превосходить в чем-либо, партизанская война.
2. Give English-English translations:
to be supported by to change constantly to tend to be to appear more ferocious to excel in smth terrain 3. Complete the table. The first example has been done for you.
NOUN ADJECTIVE Heredity hereditary aristocracy Tribe boundary army prospect glory extravagant ferocious terrain 4. Change the words in italics with the synonyms.
1) Celtic tribes were led by hereditary Kings and warlords.
2) Warfare was ever present with tribal boundaries.
3) Confrontations tended to be brief.
4) To appear more ferocious, warriors painted their bodies.
5) Their weapons were the spear, shield and long slashing sward.
6) In set-piece battles, Celtic warriors were rarely any match for the Roman army.
7) But in difficult terrain, the Celts excelled in the tactics of guerilla warfare.
5. Put the verbs in brackets in Passive Form:
1) Virginia (to lead) by its governor William Berkley.
2) The idea (to support) by the majority of the stuff.
3) In the United States the northeast (to call) New England.
4) Their houses (to paint) bright colors.
5) Rockefeller’s competitors (to drive) to the wall.
6) The health and safety of the working man (to protect) strong laws.
7) New clothes (to wear) especially for this occasion.
6. Read out the sentences below. Choose suitable continuations from the box, and change them into the passive.
He didn't die of a heart attack.
He was murdered.
1) He didn’t die of a heart attack.
2) I didn't loose my credit cards.
3) She doesn't work there any more.
4) He didn't fall out of the window.
5) I've got my briefcase back.
6) His parents died when he was three.
7) We didn't go to the party.
8) Actually, it's not a Picasso.
His grandmother brought him up.
Someone pushed him.
Someone stole them.
My daughter painted it.
Someone found it on a bus.
They didn't invite us.
Someone murdered him.
They sacked her last week.
7. Find in the text the sentences with Passive Voice. Translate them.
8. Transform the following sentences from Passive into Active:
1) Hereditary Kings led celtic tribes.
2) A warrior aristocracy enslaved the mass of peasantry.
3) Warriors were driven mostly by prospect of individual glory.
4) Body amour was rarely worn.
5) In order to be more ferocious their bodies were painted.
6) Chariots were sometimes used.
7) The Romans were excelled in the tactics of guerilla warfare by the Celts.
9. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1) Поселение Плимут было основано пилигримами.
2) Вскоре все проблемы были решены их первым губернатором.
3) В поселении была разрешена только одна церковь.
4) Считалось, что люди должны иметь право получать образование и свободно выражать свое мнение.
5) Осенью 1734 года один из колонистов был арестован за публикацию критики в адрес губернатора.
6) Историками были предложены несколько причин происхождения Американской революции.
7) Мормоны размещаются на берегах Великого Соленого озера.
Discussion Task Discuss in the group if the Celts were skilled warriors or not. Give your arguments.
TEXT THREE II AUGUSTA Vocabulary notes magistrate - государственный to convey - выразить, передать чиновник идею councilor - советник crack - великолепный, toga - тога, мантия судьи первоклассный to bear - носить, надевать capable - способный essential - необходимый to draw - привлекать, набирать brutal - жестокий to prod - подгонять, торопить pouch - кисет, кошелек Pre-reading Task Read the text quickly to get an idea of what it is about. Ignore the missing words.
II AUGUSTA Rome maintained the largest professional army of the ancient world. Its men were well equipped and highly trained, and operated in strict formation on the battlefield.
0 E Magistrates and councilors, elected (1)_the property-owing class, raised fine public buildings (2)_ towns, which now served (3)_ their tribal capitals.(4)_ answered to Rome (5)_the Governor- whose toga bore the broad purple stripe (6)_distinguished him as a Senator.
It was the Centurions (mostly elevated from the ranks) (7)_provided the continuity (8)_tradition essential (9)_a disciplined fighting force.
Often conservative and brutal, they were always feared (10)_frequently hated (11)_their men.
The Optio was nominated by the Centurion as (12)_deputy. His knobended staff was used to prod the ranks (13)_line, and he carried the 'orders of the day' in a pouch (14)_his belt.
Standard - bearers normally wore shirts of mail (15)_scale amour. As a mark of (16)_status, and to convey appropriate ferocity, they wore the skins of bears or wolves. Standard - bearers also had responsibility (17)_the safekeeping of soldiers pay and savings.
The legions were the crack troops of the Roman army ( the heavy infantry), sent (18)_for campaigns of conquest (19)_the empire, or to suppress revolt (20)_its frontiers. These men were specialists and craftsmen of all kinds, capable of bringing the mechanisms of Roman rule to a (21)_conquered territory and particularly the engineers and architects who could create the physical infrastructure of a new province.
The Romans were quick to employ the fighting (22)_of the people they conquered. The auxiliary troops become part of the established structure of the army, but continued to draw recruits (23)_the non-citizen population, and mainly from the barbarian inhabitants of the frontier of the Empire.
The Romans relied for their cavalry on (24)_troops drawn from nations with tradition of horsemanship, from Thrace and Scythia (25)_North Africa. These were standardized into auxiliary unit called an ala, the Latin word for 'wing'.
Fill spaces 1-25 with these words.
Out, auxiliary, newly, their, which, as, at, to(2), into, within, skills, from(2), beyond, for, or, his, in, who, all, of, via, and, by.
Reading Comprehension Tasks 1. Read the text again and choose the most suitable heading from the list AH for each part (1-6). There is an example at the beginning (0). Notice that there is one heading which you do not need to use.
A The Celts E Senator B Cavalry F Centurion C Optio G Standard - Bearer D Legionary Soldier H Auxiliary 2. Choose the best answer in 1 - 5.
1. II Augusta in Rome was A. The Parliament B. Professional army C. The Emperor of Rome D. The Senate 2. The property owing class elected A. The Pope B. Senators C. Mayors and Government D. Magistrates and councilors.
3. The Centurion were A. Educated and intelligent B. Feared warriors C. The most distinguished men D. Liberate and free men.
4. Standard - bearers were responsible for A. Law and Order B. Keeping humans rights C. Safekeeping of soldiers money D. State security.
5. The Romans quickly taught conquered people A. Read and write B. Fighting skills C. Economics D. Be good at Politics.
Vocabulary and Grammar Tasks 1. Find in the text the English for:
2. Form the opposites from the following words with the help of prefixes:
equipped considerable distinguished appropriate essential responsible capable employed justifiable cultured memorial 3. How do these forms change Give the missing form of the words below.
VERB NOUN elect continuity ferocity responsibility specialize create employ establishment conquest populate inhabitant reliance 4. Change the verb in brackets if necessary.
When darkness (fall) over the hills of Sussex on 14 October, 1066, few people (have) any idea of what (happen). But nowadays every schoolchildren in England (know) that on that day the famous battle of Hastings (take) place. In this battle the last Anglo-Danish king (defeat) by a Norman invader, Duke William. Soon after his victory William the Conqueror (crown) as William I. The new king (bring) a new law and a new language.
5. The words in the sentences below are jumbled up. Re-write the sentences, putting the words in the right order.
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