МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования “Оренбургский государственный университет” Кафедра иностранных языков гуманитарных и социально-экономических специальностей С.Г. ИВАНОВА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ ”АНТИКРИЗИСНОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ” Рекомендовано к изданию Редакционно-издательским советом государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования “Оренбургский государственный университет” Оренбург 2004 ББК 81.2 Анг-923 И 20 УДК802.0 я 7 Рецензент кандидат педагогических наук, доцент В.В. Мороз Иванова С.Г.
И 20 Английский язык: Методические указания по специальности “Антикризисное управление - Оренбург: ГОУ ОГУ,2004.-25с.
Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов специальности «Антикризисное управление» факультета экономики и управления.
Цель методических указаний состоит в том, чтобы познакомить студентов с основной лексикой по данной специальности.
Разнообразные упражнения к текстам способствуют развитию навыков делового общения и чтения специальных текстов.
II - В чем отличие сегодняшнего мира. Типы основных кризисов.
III - Определение кризиса. Предупреждение кризиса. Блок после текстовых упражнений.
IV - Список терминов. Ключи к упражнениям.
К методическим указаниям прилагается словарь терминов по специальности.
Лексические упражнения и практические задания к текстам направлены на усвоение терминологии по данной специальности и развитие навыков изучающего и просмотрового чтения. Цель речевых упражнений стимулировать развитие навыков говорения по изучаемой специальности.
1 Unit 1 Crisis Management Speciality.
1.1 Pre-Text Exercises 1.1.1 Pronounce the following words:
1.1.2 Try to remember the following words and word combinations from the text:
man-made or human-caused crises - кризисы, связанные с деятельностью человека product tampering - подделка изделия sexual harassment - сексуальное домогательство environmental contamination - загрязнение окружающей среды workplace violence - насилие на рабочем месте fraud - обман, мошенничество computer hacking - взлом компьютера executive kidnapping - похищение администратора natural disasters - природные бедствия 1.1.3 Check if you remember the meanings of the following verbs:
to risk to manage to deal to understand to tamper to practice to cause to kidnap to prevent to cause to occur to contaminate to lessen to execute to foresee to avoid 1.2 Read and translate the text What Is Crisis Management In contrast to the disciplines of emergency and risk management, which deal primarily with natural disasters, the field of CM deals mainly with man-made or human-caused crises, such as computer hacking, environmental contamination, executive kidnapping, fraud, product tampering, sexual harassment and workplace violence. Unlike natural disasters, human-caused crises are not inevitable. They do not need to happen. For this reason, the public is extremely critical of those organizations that are responsible for their occurrence. Why do crises occur in the first place, and what can be done to manage them better before, during, and after their occurrence. Nonetheless, even with the best of frameworks and the best of preparations, it is unfortunately still the case that not all crises can be prevented.
This even holds true for those crises that we know with almost complete certainty will occur. But the impacts of all crises can be lessened if one has a thorough understanding of the "essential basics" of CM. While not all crises can be foreseen, let alone prevented, all of them can be managed far more effectively if we understand and practice the best of what is humanly possible.
1.3 Assignments 1.3.1 Answer the questions:
1) What does CM deal mainly with 2) What human-caused crises can you name 3) Can human-caused crises or natural disasters be inevitable And why 4) Why can’t all crises be prevented 1.3.2 Match the words to their Russian equivalents:
man-made or human-caused crises природные бедствия product tampering подделка изделия sexual harassment загрязнение окружающей среды environmental contamination сексуальное домогательство workplace violence обман, мошенничество fraud насилие на рабочем месте computer hacking кризисы, связанные с деятельностью executive kidnapping человека natural disasters взлом компьютера похищение администратора 2 Unit 2 What Is Different about Today's World 2.1 Read Text A for the main idea using the dictionary What Is Different about Today's World What is it about our modern information/industrial society that makes it more prone to crises And, in particular, why have human-caused crises escalated especially in the last twenty years The vast majority of organizations and institutions have not been designed to anticipate crises or to manage them effectively once they have occurred. Neither the mechanisms nor the basic skills are in place for effective CM. Most fundamental of all, the managers and executives of most organizations and institutions still do not understand the "new management and thinking skills" required to head off crises. CM is broader than dealing with crises alone. It provides a unique and critical perspective on the new management skills and the new types of organizations that will be required in the twenty-first century. Many organizations still think of CM primarily as an exercise in public relations. They feel that the media unfairly manipulate unfortunate events, thus making them into major crises. More to the point, they feel that the media are actually a cause of crises for organizations. From this perspective, the problem is to communicate effectively with the media after a crisis has occurred. These same organizations feel that preparing for the media is all the protection they need.
2.2 Assignments 2.2.1 Translate the following words and word combinations:
To make smth. prone to crises, human-caused crises, to escalate, to be designed to anticipate crises, to manage crises effectively, new management and thinking skills, to deal with crises, to provide a unique and critical perspective, management skills and new types of organizations, to manipulate unfortunate events unfairly, a cause of crises, to communicate effectively with smth., protection, the media.
2.2.2 Prepare a list of ten questions to ask about the text. Be ready to interview the students in the group and discuss the set up problems.
2.3 Read Text B and get the information about the types of major crises.
Mind new words and word-combinations:
1) a robust crisis portfolio – портфель ценных бумаг по подготовке к кризису;
2) to share strong similarities – иметь большие сходства;
3) to attempt to prepare for – пытаться подготовиться;
4) threatening – угрожающий;
5) to predict and to prevent crisis - предсказывать и предотвращать кризис;
6) human vigilance – бдительность человека;
7) human blame – вина человека;
8) mitigation – смягчение;
9) to design appropriate apartment structures – проектировать соответствующие жилые сооружения;
10) victims of earthquakes – жертвы землетрясений;
11) to prod to prepare for – подгонять к подготовке;
12) contamination – загрязнение, заражение;
13) poisoning – отравление;
14) incidents – несчастные случаи;
15) collapse – разрушение.
Types and Risks of Major Crises Research demonstrates that crises can be sorted into the general categories, families, or types. These are the major types of crises or major risk categories that all organizations should be prepared for. Indeed, a robust "crisis portfolio" consists precisely of the preparation for at least one crisis in each of the various types or families. Within each general family, specific crises share strong similarities. On the other hand, there are sharp differences between the general categories, families, or types of major crises. Research in CM also reveals how the best organizations plan for major crises. The first finding is that they attempt to prepare for at least one crisis in each of the families. First, most organizations only consider at most one or two families. For instance, most organizations prepare at least for natural disasters, such as fires, earthquakes, or floods. Natural disasters occur with great regularity, and they strike all organizations equally. Thus, they are the least threatening to the "collective ego" of organizations. For instance, earthquakes affect all organizations in the Los Angeles area equally. Furthermore, since one can neither predict nor prevent earthquakes, there is not the blame associated with earthquakes as there is with other types of crises such as work place violence—that call for special human vigilance and mitigation. However, even earthquakes have some degree of human blame or responsibility associated with them. For instance, even though we can neither predict nor prevent earthquakes, humans are still charged with the responsibility of designing appropriate buildings that will withstand their worst effects. Humans are also charged with designing appropriate recovery efforts for the victims of earthquakes.
Thus, even those crises that are due solely to "acts of nature" still have a strong human component associated with them, as recent tragedies in Turkey and Venezuela demonstrate so vividly. In the case of Turkey, the failure to design appropriate apartment structures led not only to their collapse but to the deaths of hundreds of occupants. Thus, while Mother Nature may produce earthquakes, humans contribute to their worst effects through shoddy, irresponsible, and even criminal actions.
Organizations that do broaden their preparations for crises other than natural disasters most often do it only for "core or normal" disasters that are specific to their particular industry. For instance, no one really has to prod the chemical industry to prepare for explosions and fires, since such occurrences are - part of the industry's day-to-day operating experience. Such occurrences are considered a natural part of the territory. For another, no one really has to prod fast food companies to prepare for food contamination and poisoning, since such incidents are also unfortunately part of their day-to-day operating experience. One does have to continually prod organizations to consider the occurrence of crises from any and all of the families simultaneously. That is, major crises occur not only because of what an organization knows, anticipates, and plans for, but just as much because of what it does not know and does not anticipate.
2.4 Assignments 2.4.1 Use the table and classify the major crisis types and risks:
Major Crisis Types and Risks:
Economic crisis Informational crisis Physical crisis Breakdown of key Labor unrest False information equipment, plants.
Tampering with computer Labor shortage Loss of key facilities records Major decline in stock Loss of key computer price and fluctations;
information with regard Major plant disruptions Market crash; Decline in to customers, supplies.
Loss of proprietary and Loss of key equipment, Labor strike confidential information. plants, and material supplies.
3 Unit 3 Crisis definition 3.1 Read Text A and give the crisis definition. Answer the questions making use of the table given below the text.
Organizations also need to consider that even when they have prepared for a particular type of crisis and a specific form of it, major crises will still occur because of constantly emerging new environmental factors that give a new wrinkle to old forms. At this point, it is important to say a few words about the definition of a crisis. Definitions are only really important with regard to the purpose they serve.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to give a precise and general definition of a crisis any more than it is possible to predict with exact certainty how a crisis will occur, when it will occur, and why. Nonetheless, a "guiding definition" is that a crisis is an event that affects or has the potential to affect the whole of an organization. Thus, if something affects only a small, isolated part of an organization, it may not be a major crisis.
In order for a major crisis to occur, it must exact a major toll on human lives, property, financial earnings, the reputation, and the general health and well-being of an organization. More often than not, these occur simultaneously.
That is a major crisis is something that “cannot be completely contained within the walls of an organization.” Although they are rare, a few crises, such as the one at Barren's Bank a few years ago, have the potential to destroy a whole organization. And, as the recent experience of the Los Angeles Police Department shows, a major crisis can exact a tremendous financial cost potentially in the billions of dollars. Every organization should plan for the occurrence of at least one crisis in each of the various families or types for the reason that each type can happen to any organization.
Human Reputational Psychopathic Acts Natural Disasters Resource Loss of key Slander Product tampering Earthquake executives Loss of key Gossip Kidnapping Fire personnel Rise in absenteeism Sick jokes Hostage taking Floods Rise in vandalism Rumors Terrorism Explosions and accidents Damage to Workplace violence Workplace violence Typhoons corporate reputation Tampering with Hurricanes corporate logos Questions:
1) Why will major crises still occur in the future 2) It is possible to give a precise definition of a crisis and predict with exact certainty how a crisis will occur 3) What is a crisis 4) What forms and families of crises should organizations be prepared for 4 Unit 4 Managing Crises before They Happen 4.1 Text B: Managing Crises before They Happen. Reading for specific information. Read the text about product tampering and discuss it in groups.
Managing Crises before They Happen For instance, consider product tampering. Product tampering does not apply only to food or pharmaceutical organizations. All organizations are vulnerable to a form of product tampering that applies specifically to them. For instance, computers are an integral part of every organization. As a result, the true value of computers is neither their hardware nor their software. Rather, it is the information that they contain about customers and other key stakeholders. For instance, a person or persons gaining access to and tampering with an organization's key records could seriously affect that organization's products and services. An interesting example is the famous French manufacturer of encyclopedias, Larousse. Aparently, the French are avid collectors and eaters of mushrooms. At particular times of the year, they literally go into the forest with their Larousse encyclopedias at their side. In one section of the encyclopedia there are two facing pages. One side has pictures of the mushrooms that are safe to eat, and the other side has pictures of the unsafe mushrooms. For some unknown reason, whether intentional or not, the labels on the two pages in one edition were reversed. Thus, the safe mushrooms were labeled unsafe, and vice versa.
This is a prominent example of product tampering. The moral should be absolutely clear: One ignores all or any major types of crises at one's peril.
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