Министерство образования Российской Федерации Воронежский государственный университет Кафедра страноведения и иностранных языков Исторического факультета МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ Writing Part 2 Для студентов 3 курса исторического факультета (спец.020700) и студентов 3 курса факультета международных отношений (спец. 3502).
Составители: И.В.Домбровская О.А.Петрова Воронеж – 2002 Mетодические указания предназначены для студентов исторического факультета, обучающихся в группах с углублённым изучением английского языка (3 курс), и студентов факультета международных отношений (3 курс).
Цель данных методических указаний – дальнейшее совершенствование навыков письма. В методических указаниях рассматриваются различные виды письменных заданий: статья, сочинениерассуждение и т. д., представленные в тестах FCE (вторая часть Paper 2 – Writing).
Предлагаемые типы заданий отобраны составителями на основе анализа тестов FCE как наиболее часто встречающиеся.
Методические указания снабжены Приложением.
-Stories (imaginary stories, true stories, describing experiences, tales etc) -Factual reports (news reports: events, current affairs, accidents, etc) In narratives we use a variety of past tenses such as: Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect etc. Each paragraph deals with a different idea which is developed through it. The last sentence of each paragraph should lead to the next paragraph.
When writing a narrative composition, you should always keep in mind the kind of reader you are writing for. In other words, writing a fictional short story is completely different from writing a factual report. For example, a story should display both atmosphere and our emotions at the time.
Punctuation is very important as narratives include Reported or Direct Speech (see Appendix for Punctuation). Use of short forms is acceptable in stories but not in factual reports, unless we use Direct Speech.
When writing a narrative, keep a time sequence in mind. Factual reports and stories describe a sequence of events and these events are linked with appropriate sequence words such as:
First Finally No sooner…than While Then/Next As soon as Hardly…when Until After/Before (that) The moment that Immediately By the time During/ As Since As long as Meanwhile A story can be written either in the 1st person (personal style) or in the 3rd person and it describes a sequence of real or fictional events. It must be exciting, strange or funny in order to entertain the reader. Successful beginnings and endings are the most important factors in story writing. A good beginning will stimulate the reader’s interest and curiosity. (NOTE: In the FCE exam the opening sentence may be given.) A good ending satisfies the reader’s interest and his/her curiosity. Keep in mind that a boring ending can spoil a good story.
A story may end with a conclusion, a question, a surprise or it can end in suspense. (NOTE: In the FCE exam the closing sentence may be given.) Factual reports describe a series of events and can be written only in the 3rd person (impersonal style). The passive is frequently used as well as a variety of past tenses. When writing factual reports we should stick to the facts and use reporting verbs (e.g. comment, complain, add etc) in Direct or Reported Speech.
General outlines for narratives Story Factual Report Introduction Introduction Para.1 Set the scene (describe the Para.1 Summary of the event (write weather, time, atmosphere, about time, place, people people involved, possible involved. Do not give detailed feelings etc) descriptions.) Main body Main Body Para.2 Before the main event(s) Para.2 Development of the event(s) (incidents leading to the main (describe the main event(s), event) people involved. Give detailed Para.3 The main event(s) (describe facts. If it is 2-3 events, each the main event(s), people paragraph should deal with involved, more details etc) one topic.) The main body may include 1-3 The main body may include 1-paragraphs. paragraphs.
Conclusion Conclusion Final para. End the story (refer to Final para. Comments/Reference to moods, consequences, future developments people’s reactions, feelings etc) Style in narratives A story has a less formal style than a factual report.
Informal style for stories Formal style for factual reports -Personal style (first or third -Impersonal style person) -Direct Speech is more common -Use of Passive Voice/reporting verbs in than Reported Speech. Direct or Reported Speech -Detailed and chatty descriptions -Only facts (use of adjectives) -Colloquial English (use of -Complex sentence structure, well- idioms and idiomatic developed paragraphs, high level of expressions) vocabulary, non-colloquial English Exercise Read the two models and say which model:
1 uses an impersonal style 2 includes detailed and chatty descriptions 3 uses examples of the passive voice 4 uses a personal style 5 is an example of colloquial English and includes idiomatic expressions 6 contains only facts 7 is a story/is a factual report MODEL Ann Brown, a twenty-two-year-old cleaner, was alone in the Trafalgar Square offices of the Central Bank at 6.04 pm on Tuesday, when the earthquake struck. As the building started to collapse, Ms Brown tried to escape but was trapped under falling debris.
Although rescue teams arrived quickly at the scene, they were unable to reach her until the following morning. This was because the rubble could only be removed manually. Air and water were, however, passed to her through gaps in the building to keep her alive as rescuers feared that more of the building would collapse on Ms Brown if any mechanical equipment was used.
Eventually, the rescue team reached her and she was pulled to safety.
The head of the rescue team commented: “It is nothing short of a miracle that Ms Brown survived under so much rubble for such a long period of time.” He added, “She must have a guardian angel watching over her.” The bank is to be rebuilt within the next four months.
MODEL I went to work on foot that evening. As usual I went up to the second floor to get the cleaning stuff out of the cupboard. The building was empty and I figured that I could finish cleaning before 9 pm.
I had only just begun when there was a terrible rumble, like thunder, and the building literally started to collapse around me. I remember falling and I was lying on cold concrete in total darkness.
I was trapped. I started to scream but realised it was useless. That turned into the longest night in my life. It seemed like an eternity before I heard voices above me. I shouted for help. A man shouted back, ”Where are you” “Here, here!” I yelled at the top of my voice. “Don’t panic, we’ll get you out of there,” he called. He told me to take the air water pipes that were shoved through the rubble.
When a chunk of debris was moved and I saw daylight, I knew I would be safe. As the rescuer climbed down and hauled me out, I felt great relief.
Although my leg was hurting terribly, I was happy to be safe and sound.
Exercise Follow the outline for narratives and write a factual report about the bus drivers’ strike.
Traffic in London/ disruptive all day/ due/ striking bus drivers.
Traffic/ monitored by police/ but main roads/ still/ blocked/ causing long tailbacks/ and accidents/ already/ reported.
Main reasons for the strike/ be/ a growing number of attacks on drivers/ and/ bus company’s refusal/ provide them/ greater protection.
Drivers’ union/ demand/ an increase/ number of security staff employed/ bus company.
Emergency meeting/ called by/ bus company’s management this morning/ resulted in/ offer/ hold talks with the drivers’ union.
Bob Brown head of/ drivers’ union/ warned/ more strikes/ take place/ management’s promises/ not fulfilled.
Descriptive Techniques Stories may be a series of events or they may include detailed and chatty descriptions of the people, objects or places involved in the event. Therefore, narrative techniques can include descriptive techniques as well.
When you describe physical appearance, remember to include: Height, Build, Age, Facial features, Hair, Clothes, moving from the most general adjectives to the most specific ones.
e.g. John is a tall, well-built man. He’s got a round face with bright blue eyes and a big nose. His short grey straight hair makes him look sophisticated.
He always dresses smartly in a well-cut suit and tie.
When you describe a person’s character, remember to use a balanced combination of good and bad qualities. You should always justify the qualities you mention each time.
e.g. He is so reliable that he will never let you down.
As for the negative qualities, they should be written using mild language e.g. Instead of saying: He is aggressive, you can say: He has/shows/displays a tendency to be aggressive or He can be aggressive at times.
When describing particular details of a place, it is important to use your senses (sight, sound, smell, taste, touch).
e.g. I live in a cottage. You can still smell the wood from which it was built. A combination of static and moving features is also used in descriptions.
E.g. static features: The cottage is at the top of the hill, moving features: The stream flows down the hill. You can also describe the place either from near to far, from a central point, from a high point etc.
When using adjectives in your descriptions you should bear in mind the following order:
Opinion, Size/Weight, Age, Shape, Colour, Country of Origin, Material + NOUN e.g. It’s a beautiful big ancient grey English church.
General outlines for descriptive techniques Description of people 1. Place & time you met him/her.
2. Physical appearance (e.g. tall, well-built, old etc).
3. Personality characteristics & justification(e.g. He’s ambitious; he always wants to come first in class.) 4. Activities (person at work, relaxing, spare time activities etc).
5. Comments and feelings about the person.
Points to remember Make your composition more interesting by using a wide range of adjectives (fabulous, superb, etc.) instead of a limited one (good, big, nice, etc).
Be careful with the use of tenses. You can use present tenses when you describe someone in the present, and past tenses when you describe someone related to the past. e.g. someone you had met before you moved to this city, someone who is no longer alive, etc.
Avoid writing simple short sentences. More complex sentences joined with connectors make your composition more eye-catching. e.g. Instead of saying: John is thin. He has large blue eyes. He has long curly hair. He has full lips. He wears his hair loose, you can say: John is a tall thin man with large blue eyes and full lips. He wears his long curly hair loose.
Exercise Read the first model. Why is it bad Read the second model. Underline the personality adjectives and the justification given. Which paragraph gives information about John’s daily routine In which paragraph does the writer express his feeling about John MODEL John is 20. He is my best friend and he is the person I depend on most.
He is taller than me and fat. He wears jeans and sweatshirts at home, but he wears a suit for work. He has blue eyes and brown hair. John is patient, tolerant, polite, kind, enthusiastic and relaxed, but he is sometimes aggressive, careless, shy and selfish.
John works in a bookshop. He likes it very much. In his free time he likes watching TV and reading. He sometimes goes to restaurants.
I first met John at a party at my cousin’s house. I didn’t like him at first, but now I do. John is also very good at sports. He plays tennis and badminton.
He usually wins.
I hope that John and I are friends forever. He is best friend.
MODEL Six years ago I went to my cousin’s birthday party, and that’s where I met John. I must admit that at first I thought he was unfriendly, because he wasn’t speaking to anyone, then I realized he was quite shy.
John is now 20 years old, the same age as me. He’s about 6 feet tall and a bit overweight. He has big blue eyes set in a round face. He has a small, turnedup nose and curly, black hair. He usually wears casual clothes, like jeans and a sweatshirt. For special occasions he wears a suit and tie.
What I like most about John is that he’s very patient, and tolerant. He never hurries you or gets angry if he’s kept waiting. He is very kind to animals and often feeds stray dogs and cats. Unfortunately, he can be careless and often makes mistakes at work.
John loves his job selling books in a large bookshop. He helps all the customers, and is never rude. In his free time John enjoys watching old black and white films on TV and reading biographies. He also likes playing tennis and badminton, and he usually wins.
John and I are not very alike but we complement and trust each other and I know he will never let me down.
Exercise Write any of the following compositions using 120-180 words.
1. A youth magazine is running “The Best Mum of the Year” competition and has asked its readers to submit their compositions describing their mothers.
Write your composition for the competition.
2. Your teacher has asked you to write a composition describing the person who has influenced your life the most. Write your composition.
3. Your teacher has asked you to write a composition describing a famous person from history whom you admire. Write your composition.
4. A TV channel has asked its young viewers to submit a description of their favourite film star. The prize is two tickets to MGM Studios. Write your composition for the competition.
Description of a place 1. Name and geographical situation of the place.
2. Reasons for choosing the place.
3. Particular details of the place (sights to see – how to spend your free time there etc).
4. Feelings and final thoughts about the place.
Points to remember Tenses: You can use various tenses. The choice depends on how the question is set. You can use Present tenses if, for example, you have been asked to describe a place for a tourist brochure. You can use Past tenses if you describe a visit to a place which happened some time ago. You can use conditionals if you describe your dream house, ideal city, etc.
Adjectives: Use a wide variety of factual adjectives (huge, enormous, etc.) and opinion adjectives (fabulous, charming, etc.). Try to avoid using only common ones such as good, nice, etc. This will make your composition more interesting and you will catch the reader’s attention.
Use narrative techniques to start (set the scene) and finish your composition. You can start or finish it by: a) using your senses to describe the weather, the surrounding e.g. Black clouds hung overhead and the wind howled through the trees. Flashes of lightning seemed to tear open the sky giving the old castle a magical appearance. b) using Direct Speech e.g. “Welcome to Castle Carreg,” a voice said, as the old heavy wooden door creaked open. c) asking a rhetorical question e.g. Have you ever wondered what it would be like to spend a night in an old haunted castle d) describing people’s feelings or reactions about the place e.g. Though the huge castle on the hill had been empty for over a hundred years, many people claimed to have heard strange noises coming from it at night. e) writing a quotation about the place e.g. “An English man’s home is his castle.” f) creating mystery, suspense or anticipation e.g. As I looked up at the old castle, it seemed as though icy fingers gripped her heart.
Had she really experienced all that, or was it her imagination Exercise Underline the static features and circle the moving features in the phrases listed below.
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