Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Part-Time Education) Saint-Petersburg 2006 0 Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Федеральное агентство по образованию Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет информационных технологий, механики и оптики English for Economists (Part-Time Education) Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов гуманитарного факультета вечерней и заочной формы обучения Санкт-Петербург 2006 1 English for Economists (Part-Time Education) – СПб: СПб ГУ ИТМО, 2006. – 153c.
Составители: проф. Маркушевская Л.П.
ст. преп. Буханова Л.И.
ст. преп. Мелконян А.Л.
ст. преп. Рущенко Г.В.
ст. преп. Шенцова С.В.
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов-экономистов ВИЗО и может быть использовано как на аудиторных занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.
В данном пособии представлены оригинальные тексты по специальности, знакомящие студентов с основными экономическими законами, правилами международной торговли, квотами, тарифами, субсидиями и т.д.
В пособии использована и объяснена наиболее частотная терминологическая лексика. Грамматические задания, представленные в каждом уроке, коррелируются с текстовым материалом, включающим в себя частотные структуры с неличными формами глаголов, условными предложениями, сослагательным наклонением.
К учебному пособию прилагается методические указания по деловому письму, алфавитный словарь социально-бытовой и терминологической лексики.
Пособие составлено на кафедре иностранных языков университета.
Утверждено к изданию Ученым Советом Гуманитарного факультета.
Exercise 2. Make nouns from the following verbs according to the model and translate them.
Model: a) to import – import(er);
to record, to travel, to trade, to finance, to consume.
Model: b) to endow – endow(ment);
to retire, to agree, to govern, to employ, to pay, to invest.
UNDERSTANDING A PRINTED TEXT WHAT IS THE WORLD ECONOMY In many ways, we are all part of the world economy. When we drink our imported coffee or hot chocolate in the morning, when we use a foreign-made videocassette recorder, or when we travel abroad on holiday, we are participating in the growing world of international trade and finance.
And it is not only as a consumer of foreign goods and services that we are part of the world economy. The money that our pension funds or university endowments earn from global investments may actually be paying for our retirement or a new building on campus. Foreign investment in local real estate and companies can also provide needed jobs for our friends and families. Even the local athlete who has signed a contract to play abroad is part of the expanding global economy.
The world economy is made up of all those interactions among people, businesses, and governments that cross international borders, even the illegal ones.
We use the world economy to achieve specific political or ecological objectives when we employ economic sanctions to fight racial segregation or the illegal killing of whales.
Basically, whatever crosses an international border—whether goods, services, or transfers of funds—is part of the world economy. Food imports, automobile exports, investments abroad, even the trade in services such as movies or tourism contribute to each country's international economic activity.
COMPREHENSION CHECK Exercise 1. Choose the correct answer according to the information in the text.
1. What is the global economy made up of a) The world economy is made up of goods and services.
b) The world economy is made up of all interactions between people, businesses and governments that cross international borders.
c) The world economy is made up of domestic and international trade.
2. What is the part of the world economy a) Everything that crosses international borders.
b) All goods and services at men’s disposal.
c) Each country’s economic activity.
3. What can provide needed jobs for our friends and families a) Our own money.
b) Loans from local banks.
c) Foreign investment in local real estate and companies.
Exercise 2. Find the right translation of the following economic terms.
1. Trade a) торговля b) торг c) торговый оборот 2. Investment a) достаток b) дар c) капиталовложение 3. Goods a) товары b) услуги c) чеки INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY Exercise 1. Match Russian and English equivalents.
1 1. goods a.капиталовложение 2. to participate b. цель 3. investment c. заменять 4. retirement d. услуги 5. real estate e. недвижимость 6. interaction f. пожертвование, дар 7. contribute g. участвовать 8. consumer h. расширение 9. objective i. товары 10. services j. местный k. потребитель l. взаимодействие m. вкладывать n. местность o. выход на пенсию LANGUAGE ACTIVITY Exercise 1. Look at these examples and add more of your own using the root words with one of the prefixes in this list.
co co-chairman, co-worker … mid midnight, midair, midweek … over overdone, overpaid, overcome … re rebuild, reappear, redone … un undo, until, uncover … Exercise 2. Fill the gaps in this story, using a, an, some, a lot of, lots of or the – or a “zero article” (0). The first one is done for you as an example:
Last week I went to …an… exhibition of …0… paintings at …the… Tate Gallery in London. I’m not really …… great art lover but I’d read …… good reviews of …… exhibition and I was keen to see it. When I arrived, there were already ……. people waiting outside for …… doors to open. I joined …… queue and in …… end …… doors opened and we went inside to see …… show.
Now, I must be honest and admit that many of ….. paintings disappointed me.
Although I spent …… time looking carefully at …… each one, I had …… difficulty in understanding what …… artist was getting at. Finally, as I was looking at one of …… paintings and trying to decide if it was …… right way up or not, …… old gentleman came up behind me and started to explain …… whole thing to me. He kindly answered all of …… my questions and we talked for over …… hour. Then he said he had …… appointment and had to go, so we shook hands and said goodbye. I went round …… gallery once more and now I found that all …… paintings seemed really beautiful.
It was only as I was leaving …… gallery that I found out who …… old man was his self-portrait was on …… posters advertising …… exhibition! Exercise 3. Supply the correct articles where necessary.
1. Passengers for … flight 452 to London, please collect your hand luggage and go to … gate four.
2. Can I check in for … flight to London here 3. It’s … non-stop flight.
4. The price for … goods was 500.
5. Now English people don’t go to … cinema and to … theatre as often as some years ago. They usually stay at home and watch television and VCR.
6. There will be … new cinema in our district next month.
Exercise 4. Divide the following words into two groups:
Exercise 2. Match the equivalents of the given collocations:
a) per capita, to be well off, per household, common unit of measure, currency exchange rate, purchasing power parity, in the long run.
b) в конце концов, на душу населения, быть обеспеченным, общепринятая единица измерения, курс валютного обмена, на одно домовладение, равенство покупательской способности.
Exercise 3. Translate collocations used with the word “question”. Use then in sentences of your own.
Without question, in question, a question of, out of the question, open to question, just a question of.
UNDERSTANDING A PRINTED TEXT HOW IS WEALTH DETERMINED AROUND THE WORLD A nation’s wealth can best be determined by looking at its people. But it is difficult to rely on any one statistic. Are the Kuwaitis better off because they earn more money per capita than the Brazilians Are the French better off if they have more telephones per household than the Canadians There are many different ways to determine wealth. Economists define wealth as what a person owns, such as stocks and real estate, but many people look first to their level of income to see if they are well off. Comparing salaries in different countries, however, is like comparing apples and oranges, because the salaries in each country are paid in different currencies. We need to somehow translate what each person earns into a common unit of measure.
One way of translating salaries is to first compare the value of the currencies of the countries in question. This is usually done by using exchange rates that tell us the value of one currency calculated in terms of another.
Exchange rates, determined by the foreign exchange markets around the world, reflect the markets’ view of each country’s economic and political situation. By using exchange rates, a salary in yen in Tokyo can be converted into U.S. dollars to make it comparable to a salary in Los Angeles. Or it can be converted into French francs to make it comparable to a salary in Paris.
Because the cost of living varies widely from one country to another, however, it is difficult to translate salaries by simple using currency exchange rates. If a Big Mac or an apartment costs three times as much in Tokyo as in Los Angeles or Paris, a higher salary in Japan does not necessarily mean a Japanese worker is better off than an American or French worker.
It is sometimes more valuable to look at what salaries will actually buy in each country. A salary's "purchasing power" tells us how many goods and services it can actually buy. Comparing the cost of a group of goods and services from country to country, therefore, gives us a more reliable exchange rate, called purchasing power parity (PPP). The PPP exchange rate is calculated by looking at the cost of groceries and other items such as vacation trips, automobiles, insurance, and rent in different countries.
By choosing this basket of goods and services and calculating their cost in different countries around the world, we can compare the purchasing power or "real" value of salaries from country to country. Although one country may be richer in terms of the amount of money each citizen owns or earns, what counts in the long run is what each person can do with this wealth.
COMPREHENSION CHECK Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. How do economists define wealth 2. What does salary’s purchasing power tell us 3. How is purchasing power parity (PPP) calculated 4. What do exchange rates reflect 5. Why is it difficult to rely on any one statistic in determining a nation’s wealth Exercise 2. Which explanation of an economic term (or collocation) is correct 1. a) We are all part of the world economy.
b) Only educated people can be part of world economy.
c) Only the developed countries can be part of world economy.
2. a) Per capita means for one individual.
b) Per capita means for one company.
c) Per capita means for one country.
3. a) A salary’s purchasing power tells us how many expensive goods it can actually buy.
b) A salary’s purchasing power tells us how many goods and services it can actually buy.
c) A salary’s purchasing power tells us how many real estates it can actually buy.
INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY Exercise 1. Match the synonyms.
1 1. to determine a. to depend on 2. to calculate b. to use 3. to rely on c. to make 4. to own d. to get 5. to do e. to define 6. to transfer f. to count g. to select h. to have i. to convert j. to develop LANGUAGE ACTIVITY Exercise 1. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using a suffix with the correct form of the root word on the right.
Example: It was very careless of you to break that coffee cup. care 1. She’s quite …; she plays the violin and the piano. music 2. We started our trip on a beautiful … morning. sun 3. I enjoyed the book very much because it was so …. read 4. His … knowledge is still very poor. geography 5. I’ll always remember that journey – it was an un … forget experience.
Exercise 2. Insert the article “the” where necessary.
Example: … language of Spaniards is Spanish.
The language of Spaniards is Spanish.
1. … Atlantic Ocean lies between … Europe and … United States.
2. … capital of … France is … Paris.
3. In Northern countries … summer is the hottest season.
4. He goes walking in … Pyrenees in … spring.
5. Yesterday … breakfast we had was excellent. We had … bacon and … eggs and … coffee and many other tasty things.
6. He talks a lot about … love because he is lonely.
7. … Apennines are in … Italy.
Exercise 3. Divide the following words into two groups:
a) nouns the plural form of which does not differ from the singular.
b) nouns the plural form of which differs from the singular.
1. deer 5. finger 9. fruit 2. enemy 6. fish 10. pie 3. sheep 7. fox 11. land 4. face 8. ship 12. country Exercise 4. Insert the correct prepositions:
1. Henry’s come home to England … business.
2. We’ve been working … this investigation for years.
3. I must meet him, I’ve heard so much … him.
4. It will be difficult to get … that crowd.
Exercise 5. Choose the correct form of the pronouns.
1. She speaks so fast that I couldn’t follow…(her, hers, herself).
2. For want of money (I, me, my) couldn’t go abroad.
3. Students write (their, they, them) term-papers twice a year.
4. She works at (her, hers, herself) graduation paper every day.
5. (We, ours, our) have passed (our, us, ours) exams. Let (we, ourselves, us) go to the cinema.
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