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Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Part-Time Education) Saint-Petersburg 2006 0 - , English for Economists (Part-Time Education) - 2006 1 English for Economists (Part-Time Education) : , 2006. 153c.

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- , , 2006 2 Contents Unit I.5 Unit IIUnit III..Unit IV..Unit V... Unit VI. Unit VII.Unit VIII...Unit IX..Unit X....Unit XI......Unit XII... Unit XIII.. Unit XIV..... Unit XV... Unit XVI.. Unit XVII.Unit XVIIIUnit XIX.. Unit XX Unit XXI.. Unit XXII Unit XXIII.. Unit XXIV.. Unit XXV Unit XXVI.. Unit XXVII Unit XXVIII... Unit XXIX.. Unit XXX.APPENDIX. Business CommunicationDictionaryLiteratureUnit I WORD-STUDY Exercise 1. Check the transcription in a dictionary, read and translate the words listed below.

Nouns coffee, chocolate, recorder, investment, border, activity, finance.

Verbs participate, contribute, expand, transfer, earn.

Adjectives global, foreign, international, local, racial.

Exercise 2. Make nouns from the following verbs according to the model and translate them.

Model: a) to import import(er);

to record, to travel, to trade, to finance, to consume.

Model: b) to endow endow(ment);

to retire, to agree, to govern, to employ, to pay, to invest.

UNDERSTANDING A PRINTED TEXT WHAT IS THE WORLD ECONOMY In many ways, we are all part of the world economy. When we drink our imported coffee or hot chocolate in the morning, when we use a foreign-made videocassette recorder, or when we travel abroad on holiday, we are participating in the growing world of international trade and finance.

And it is not only as a consumer of foreign goods and services that we are part of the world economy. The money that our pension funds or university endowments earn from global investments may actually be paying for our retirement or a new building on campus. Foreign investment in local real estate and companies can also provide needed jobs for our friends and families. Even the local athlete who has signed a contract to play abroad is part of the expanding global economy.

The world economy is made up of all those interactions among people, businesses, and governments that cross international borders, even the illegal ones.

We use the world economy to achieve specific political or ecological objectives when we employ economic sanctions to fight racial segregation or the illegal killing of whales.

Basically, whatever crosses an international borderwhether goods, services, or transfers of fundsis part of the world economy. Food imports, automobile exports, investments abroad, even the trade in services such as movies or tourism contribute to each country's international economic activity.

COMPREHENSION CHECK Exercise 1. Choose the correct answer according to the information in the text.

1. What is the global economy made up of a) The world economy is made up of goods and services.

b) The world economy is made up of all interactions between people, businesses and governments that cross international borders.

c) The world economy is made up of domestic and international trade.

2. What is the part of the world economy a) Everything that crosses international borders.

b) All goods and services at mens disposal.

c) Each countrys economic activity.

3. What can provide needed jobs for our friends and families a) Our own money.

b) Loans from local banks.

c) Foreign investment in local real estate and companies.

Exercise 2. Find the right translation of the following economic terms.

1. Trade a) b) c) 2. Investment a) b) c) 3. Goods a) b) c) INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY Exercise 1. Match Russian and English equivalents.

1 1. goods a. 2. to participate b. 3. investment c. 4. retirement d. 5. real estate e. 6. interaction f. , 7. contribute g. 8. consumer h. 9. objective i. 10. services j. k. l. m. n. o. LANGUAGE ACTIVITY Exercise 1. Look at these examples and add more of your own using the root words with one of the prefixes in this list.

co co-chairman, co-worker mid midnight, midair, midweek over overdone, overpaid, overcome re rebuild, reappear, redone un undo, until, uncover Exercise 2. Fill the gaps in this story, using a, an, some, a lot of, lots of or the or a zero article (0). The first one is done for you as an example:

Last week I went to an exhibition of 0 paintings at the Tate Gallery in London. Im not really great art lover but Id read good reviews of exhibition and I was keen to see it. When I arrived, there were already . people waiting outside for doors to open. I joined queue and in end doors opened and we went inside to see show.

Now, I must be honest and admit that many of .. paintings disappointed me.

Although I spent time looking carefully at each one, I had difficulty in understanding what artist was getting at. Finally, as I was looking at one of paintings and trying to decide if it was right way up or not, old gentleman came up behind me and started to explain whole thing to me. He kindly answered all of my questions and we talked for over hour. Then he said he had appointment and had to go, so we shook hands and said goodbye. I went round gallery once more and now I found that all paintings seemed really beautiful.

It was only as I was leaving gallery that I found out who old man was his self-portrait was on posters advertising exhibition! Exercise 3. Supply the correct articles where necessary.

1. Passengers for flight 452 to London, please collect your hand luggage and go to gate four.

2. Can I check in for flight to London here 3. Its non-stop flight.

4. The price for goods was 500.

5. Now English people dont go to cinema and to theatre as often as some years ago. They usually stay at home and watch television and VCR.

6. There will be new cinema in our district next month.

Exercise 4. Divide the following words into two groups:

a) nouns used only in singular;

b) nouns used only in plural.

Example: money singular;

Knowledge, contents, opera-glasses, wages, news, clothes, trousers, scissors, spectacles, mathematics.

Exercise 5. In place of the adjectives in brackets put the correct form adding more or most where necessary.

1. What (nice) present is there than a box of chocolates! 2. This is the (wonderful) and (beautiful) picture that has ever come out to the Hollywood.

3. Summer is (warm) of the four seasons.

4. Manchester is (small) than London.

5. Winter in London is (foggy) than in Paris.

6. Your test is much (bad) than I thought.

Unit II WORD-STUDY Exercise 1. Check the transcription in a dictionary, read and translate the words listed below.

Nouns wealth, salary, currency, value, view, grocery, item, insurance, amount.

Verbs determine, define, rely, own, calculate, convert.

Adjectives comparable, difficult, valuable, reliable, common.

Adverbs although, actually, usually, widely, necessarily.

Exercise 2. Match the equivalents of the given collocations:

a) per capita, to be well off, per household, common unit of measure, currency exchange rate, purchasing power parity, in the long run.

b) , , , , , , .

Exercise 3. Translate collocations used with the word question. Use then in sentences of your own.

Without question, in question, a question of, out of the question, open to question, just a question of.

UNDERSTANDING A PRINTED TEXT HOW IS WEALTH DETERMINED AROUND THE WORLD A nations wealth can best be determined by looking at its people. But it is difficult to rely on any one statistic. Are the Kuwaitis better off because they earn more money per capita than the Brazilians Are the French better off if they have more telephones per household than the Canadians There are many different ways to determine wealth. Economists define wealth as what a person owns, such as stocks and real estate, but many people look first to their level of income to see if they are well off. Comparing salaries in different countries, however, is like comparing apples and oranges, because the salaries in each country are paid in different currencies. We need to somehow translate what each person earns into a common unit of measure.

One way of translating salaries is to first compare the value of the currencies of the countries in question. This is usually done by using exchange rates that tell us the value of one currency calculated in terms of another.

Exchange rates, determined by the foreign exchange markets around the world, reflect the markets view of each countrys economic and political situation. By using exchange rates, a salary in yen in Tokyo can be converted into U.S. dollars to make it comparable to a salary in Los Angeles. Or it can be converted into French francs to make it comparable to a salary in Paris.

Because the cost of living varies widely from one country to another, however, it is difficult to translate salaries by simple using currency exchange rates. If a Big Mac or an apartment costs three times as much in Tokyo as in Los Angeles or Paris, a higher salary in Japan does not necessarily mean a Japanese worker is better off than an American or French worker.

It is sometimes more valuable to look at what salaries will actually buy in each country. A salary's "purchasing power" tells us how many goods and services it can actually buy. Comparing the cost of a group of goods and services from country to country, therefore, gives us a more reliable exchange rate, called purchasing power parity (PPP). The PPP exchange rate is calculated by looking at the cost of groceries and other items such as vacation trips, automobiles, insurance, and rent in different countries.

By choosing this basket of goods and services and calculating their cost in different countries around the world, we can compare the purchasing power or "real" value of salaries from country to country. Although one country may be richer in terms of the amount of money each citizen owns or earns, what counts in the long run is what each person can do with this wealth.

COMPREHENSION CHECK Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.

1. How do economists define wealth 2. What does salarys purchasing power tell us 3. How is purchasing power parity (PPP) calculated 4. What do exchange rates reflect 5. Why is it difficult to rely on any one statistic in determining a nations wealth Exercise 2. Which explanation of an economic term (or collocation) is correct 1. a) We are all part of the world economy.

b) Only educated people can be part of world economy.

c) Only the developed countries can be part of world economy.

2. a) Per capita means for one individual.

b) Per capita means for one company.

c) Per capita means for one country.

3. a) A salarys purchasing power tells us how many expensive goods it can actually buy.

b) A salarys purchasing power tells us how many goods and services it can actually buy.

c) A salarys purchasing power tells us how many real estates it can actually buy.

INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY Exercise 1. Match the synonyms.

1 1. to determine a. to depend on 2. to calculate b. to use 3. to rely on c. to make 4. to own d. to get 5. to do e. to define 6. to transfer f. to count g. to select h. to have i. to convert j. to develop LANGUAGE ACTIVITY Exercise 1. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using a suffix with the correct form of the root word on the right.

Example: It was very careless of you to break that coffee cup. care 1. Shes quite ; she plays the violin and the piano. music 2. We started our trip on a beautiful morning. sun 3. I enjoyed the book very much because it was so . read 4. His knowledge is still very poor. geography 5. Ill always remember that journey it was an un forget experience.

Exercise 2. Insert the article the where necessary.

Example: language of Spaniards is Spanish.

The language of Spaniards is Spanish.

1. Atlantic Ocean lies between Europe and United States.

2. capital of France is Paris.

3. In Northern countries summer is the hottest season.

4. He goes walking in Pyrenees in spring.

5. Yesterday breakfast we had was excellent. We had bacon and eggs and coffee and many other tasty things.

6. He talks a lot about love because he is lonely.

7. Apennines are in Italy.

Exercise 3. Divide the following words into two groups:

a) nouns the plural form of which does not differ from the singular.

b) nouns the plural form of which differs from the singular.

Example: a-1;

1. deer 5. finger 9. fruit 2. enemy 6. fish 10. pie 3. sheep 7. fox 11. land 4. face 8. ship 12. country Exercise 4. Insert the correct prepositions:

1. Henrys come home to England business.

2. Weve been working this investigation for years.

3. I must meet him, Ive heard so much him.

4. It will be difficult to get that crowd.

Exercise 5. Choose the correct form of the pronouns.

1. She speaks so fast that I couldnt follow(her, hers, herself).

2. For want of money (I, me, my) couldnt go abroad.

3. Students write (their, they, them) term-papers twice a year.

4. She works at (her, hers, herself) graduation paper every day.

5. (We, ours, our) have passed (our, us, ours) exams. Let (we, ourselves, us) go to the cinema.

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