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Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics Saint-Petersburg 2005 0 - , ( I) - 2005 1 English for Part-Time Students : , 2005.

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10 17.05.2005 .

- , , 2005 2 Contents Chapter I. Physics and Engineering4 - 21 Unit I4 Unit II13 Chapter II. Greats Scientists Great Discoveries22 - 65 Unit I.22 Unit II31 Unit III..Unit IV..Unit VChapter III. Computers..57 - Unit I.Unit II...Unit III..Unit IV..Unit VUnit VI.Chapter IV. Check yourself! Tests117 - DictionaryLiteratureChapter I PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING Unit I WORD-STUDY Words and word combinations to be remembered.

to interact - force - particles - at rest - internal - conservation - to convert - fission - fusion Exercise 1. Train the pronunciation and translate the international words.

Physics, energy, magnetism, electricity, gravitation, orbits, planets, mechanics, electromagnetic, spectrum, radiation, nuclear, accelerate, acceleration.

Exercise 2. Match the synonyms.

1 1. behave a) amount 2. form b) act 3. quantity c) shape 4. major d) separate 5.century e) main f) subject g) age Exercise 3. Match the antonyms.

1 1. begin a) internal 2. external b) natural 3. free of c) end 4. artificial d) combine 5. divide e) full of 6. completely f) unnecessary 7. necessary g) partially 8. straight h) fusion 9. fission i) curved 10. action j) reaction k) motion l) basic Exercise 4. Remember explanations of the following terms.

1. Mass is the internal quality of the object.

2. Energy is the kind and size of any change of the object.

3. Mechanics deals with the state of rest or motion of particles and rigid bodies and with forces acting on bodies.

4. Optics investigates and studies the process of light emission, its propagating in various medium and its interaction with the substance.

5. Electricity and magnetism are the basic subdivisions of physics dealing with existence, moving and interaction of charged particles.

6. Atomic physics deals with atoms, elements, their properties, the nature of atomic spectra.

7. Nuclear physics includes the discovery of the neutron and other fundamental particles.

8. Cryogenics study of properties of matter at very low temperatures, including superconductivity.

9. Plasma physics studies controlled thermonuclear fusion and the exploration of space.

10. Accelerators devices for bombarding nuclei with particles possessing billions of electron volts of energy.

TEXT I Comprehensive reading SOME FACTS ABOUT PHYSICS Physics deals with matter and energy and how they interact. It begins by examining the information that people sense about the world around them.

Objects are seen to move* from place to place, and when completely free of contact** with other objects, they move in straight lines at a steady speed. Being at rest objects are said to move at a steady zero speed, whenever objects do not behave this way, they are said to be accelerated***, and a force is said to act on them****.

The internal quality of the object is called mass. When forces act on objects the accelerations produce changes in such things as position, size, shape and chemical nature. The kind and size of any change is judged by***** use of a quantity called energy.

Therefore, energy forms include light, heat, sound, magnetism and electricity.

Traditionally physics is divided into several major topics, namely, mechanics heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics and nuclear physics. Because of the remarkable unity of Nature this separation into topics is, to some extent, artificial and exists for convenience.



Newtons second law, relating force to acceleration and his third law relating action and reaction, form the basis of mechanics. Maxwells equations which combine in mathematical form the laws discovered by Ampere, Faraday, form the basis of electricity, magnetism and optics.

An understanding of statics is necessary to describe the behavior of bulk matter and, with the laws of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, forms the basis of heat and thermodynamics. All these subdivisions constitute classical physics of the end of the 19th century. Modern physics began with the work of Plank and the theory of relativity.

Atomic physics made it possible for Mendeleyev to construct his Periodic Table of Elements, to predict their properties and to understand the nature of atomic spectra.

Nuclear physics has been rapidly developing since 1930 s. It includes the discovery of the neutron and other fundamental particles; the creation of artificial radioactivity, the discovery of nuclear fission and fusion; the development of particle accelerators for bombarding nuclei with particles possessing billions of electron volts of energy.

Active research flourishes in many other fields such as:

-solid state physics and cryogenics -study of properties of matter at very low temperatures, including superconductivity;

-microwave and radio frequency spectroscopy.

Plasma physics is growing rapidly because of the current search for controlled thermonuclear fusion and because of the exploration of space.

Notes:

*objects are seen to move , **free of contact ***they are said to be accelerated , ****a force is said to act on them , *****to be judged by COMPREHENSION CHECK Exercise 1. Give answers to the following questions.

1. What does physics deal with 2. When do objects move (from place to place) in straight lines at a steady speed 3. Is mass an external or internal quality of the object 4. Do accelerations produce changes in position, size, shape and chemical nature 5. How is physics traditionally divided into Exercise 2. Approve or disapprove the following statements. Begin your sentences with: Yes, thats right, No, Im afraid thats not so.

1. Physics begins by examining the information that people sense about the world around them.

2. When objects move in straight lines at a steady speed they are said to be accelerated.

3. The accelerations produce changes only in position of the object.

4. Separation of physics into several topics is to some extent artificial.

5. Nuclear physics began its rapid development in the XIX century.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the following words given below.

1. Physics deals withand how they 2. When objects move from place to place and when they are completely free ofwith other objects, they move in lines at a speed.

3. When forces act on objects they producein such things as position, ,, and chemical nature.

4. Energy forms include , , , , and .

5. Newtons second law, relating force to acceleration, and his third law, relating action and reaction form the basis of 6. Maxwells equations form the basis of , , and .

7. All these constitute classical physics.

8. Quantum mechanics is the climax of Planks quantum theory and the theory of of Einstein.

9. Atomic physics made Mendeleyevs Periodic of possible.

10. physics includes the discovery of the neutron and other fundamental particles.

(matter, contract, energy, steady, straight, size, changes, mechanics, light, shape heat, subdivisions, optics, electricity, magnetism, Table of Elements, relativity, nuclear).

LANGUAGE ACTIVITY Exercise 1. Insert articles where necessary.

1. science of mechanics studies forces in bodies at rest and working forces in bodies in motion.

2. civil engineers use information from statics how bodies behave at rest - to prevent disastrous movement in stable structures, such as bridges and buildings.

3. Aeronautical engineers use principle of dynamics - how bodies behave in motion - to design airplanes and rockets.

4. One of mechanical principles important to both those studies is center of gravity.

5. All the weight of solid body is centered at one point.

Exercise 2. Insert prepositions where necessary: (of, in, by, with).

1. The Royal Society was founded 1660. Its activities include scientific meetings, publications research work scientific journals, the delivery lectures, the presentation medals. Although an independent corporation, the Society has always had a special relationship the government.

2. The Royal Society of Arts was founded 1754. Its principal object has been to promote the progress departments science. It deals scientific, artistic, technical, industrial and commercial problems.

3. The British Association for the Advancement of Science was founded 1831 to promote general interest science and its application. One its chief activities was the annual meetings attended many young students as well as famous scientists.

Exercise 3. Choose countable and uncountable nouns.





Science, tooth, engineering, application, bridge, news, use, phenomenon, hydrogen, electronics, knowledge.

Exercise 4. Make the following nouns plural.

A mess, a day, a castle, an engineer, a shelf, a foot, a scientist, a woman, a photo, a glass, a ray, a cathode.

Exercise 5. Give the singular form of the nouns.

Devices, factories, phenomena, chiefs, children, data, nuclei, criteria.

Exercise 6. Choose the correct form of the pronouns.

1. She speaks so fast that I couldnt follow(her, hers, herself).

2. For want of money (I, me, my) couldnt go abroad.

3. Newton published (his, him, himself) famous book Principia at the age of 42.

4. The Sun gives (we, us, ours) light during the day.

5. Halley, a famous astronomer, wrote Newton a lot of letters asking (him, his, he) to publish (him, his, he) scientific ideas.

6. Students write (their, they, them) term-papers twice a year.

7. She works at (her, hers, herself) graduation paper every day.

8. A friend of (my, mine, me) is reading for (him, his, himself) exam.

9. (We, ours, our) have passed (our, us, ours) exams. Let (we, ourselves, us) go to the cinema.

10. (Your, you, yours) faculty is more difficult than (our, we, ours).

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the function of the pronoun it.

1. It is autumn. It is cold.

2. It is necessary for all the students to know the fundamental laws of mechanics.

3. The term engineering is used in many specialties, it has many meanings.

4. We do not know much about it.

5. It was in the 19th century, that there appeared electrical engineering.

Exercise 8. Translate sentences, paying attention to the functions of that and those.

1. Energy that is produced by atomic station is used for various needs of national economy.

2. Do you know that man He is a famous professor that delivers lectures on mechanics.

3. It is well known that personal experience depends on practical work.

4. The development of mechanical engineering began earlier than that of electrical one.

5. The materials that are used for refrigeration devices differ from those that are used for radio equipment.

Exercise 9. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the functions of one and ones.

1. I have only one English book.

2. He gave me a number of English books and some German ones.

3. One can see the Admiralty building on the left bank of the Neva.

4. The green car is mine and the black one is hers.

5. There was one more problem to solve - the problem of acceleration.

Exercise 10. Pay attention to the translation of the words only, the only, very, the very, few, a few, little, a little.

1. Very much attention was paid to the translation of some pronouns from the very beginning.

2. These are only a few facts about this science.

3. Civil engineering is not the only branch of engineering.

4. Few scientists supported the new theory because they had little information about it.

5. Rntgen was a little puzzled when he understood the rays were unknown to him.

Exercise 11. Translate the sentences paying attention to the reflexive and the emphasizing pronouns.

1. I am sure he will consider the problem himself.

2. You yourself insisted on my coming here.

3. We took part in this research ourselves.

4. The work itself was not so complicated as they had expected.

5. First-year students call themselves freshmen.

Exercise 12. Insert the appropriate forms of the reflexive or emphasizing pronouns.

1. Will you be able to carry out this experiment 2. We dont know it because the experiment will take a lot of time.

3. I was looking for the book but couldnt find it anywhere.

4. She couldnt rely on .

5. The results of the experiment seemed strange to the experimenter .

(ourselves, myself, herself, themselves, himself, itself, yourself) Exercise 13. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type:

a) 1. She waters flowers every day. The waters of this river are clean. They will water these trees in summer. Give me some water, please. 2. The buildings and houses in this street are very high. This building houses a museum. The house is nice. This hall will house a picture exhibition.

b) 1. England is one of the Great Powers of the world. 2. The Dean of our faculty does all in his power for the students. 3. Nuclear power stations will produce vast amount of electricity. 4. The power of the King is limited. 5. Force, work, energy and power are studied in physics. 6. Our great demands for power in the next 30 years will be met by nuclear power. 7. The teacher demands that all the students should be present at the meeting. 8. The problems of demand and supply are studied in political economy.

Exercise 14. Analyse the following sentences paying attention to the Active Tense forms of the verbs.

1. My friend studies at a higher school. 2. He entered the Aviation Institute last year.

3. He will graduate from the Aviation Institute in five years. 4. Yesterday we were in the physics laboratory. 5. In summer the third-year students of our Institute had practical training at various plants.

Exercise 15. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Passive Tense forms of the verbs.

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