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1 Анастасия Новикова МЕДИАОБРАЗОВАНИЕ НА ЗАНЯТИЯХ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ Anastasia Novikova TEACHING MEDIA IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Activities for Media Education 2 Новикова, А.А.

Медиаобразование на занятиях по английскому языку. Учебное пособие. Таганрог: Изд-во Кучма, 2004. - 52 с.

ISBN 5-98517-004-7 Пособие предназначено для учителей английского языка, преподающих в средних, высших или внешкольных учебных учреждениях. Задания ориентированы на upper intermediate level, но могут быть адаптированы учителем для более низкого или более высокого уровня знания языка.

Novikova, Anastasia. Teaching Media in the English Language Classroom.

Activities for Media Education. – Taganrog: Kuchma Publishing House, 2004. - 52 p.

This is a guide for teachers of English as a foreign language, who teach in secondary schools, higher education institutions or extra-curricular classes of English. The activities are meant for upper intermediate through advanced levels but can be adapted for a lower level of English proficiency.

The Research for this publication was supported under a grant funded by the Fulbright Scholar Program Advanced Research and University Lecturing Awards.

Рецензенты:

Prof. Dr. Richard Cornell, University of Central Florida (the U.S.A.), Former President of ICEM/CIME (International Council for Educational Media), Л.В.Усенко, доктор искусствоведения, профессор, И.В.Челышева, кандидат педагогических наук © Новикова Анастасия (Novikova, Anastasia), 2004 3 Оглавление Введение с.4 1 Фотография с.5 2 Кино c.10 3 Телевидение с.14 4 Реклама с.19 5 Новости с.24 6 Популярная музыка с.29 7 Интернет с.33 Литература с.40 Contents Preface p.4 1 Photography p.6 2 Film p.10 3 Television p.15 4 Advertisement p.19 5 News p.25 6 Popular Music p.30 7 Internet p.34 References p.40 4 Preface “Media education is a quest for meaning. Much of the value of a quest lies in the search itself as well as in the achievement of the goal.” (Chris Worsnop, Canadian Media Educator, author of the book “Screening Images: Ideas for Media Education”) Media education today is one of the fastest developing trends in the field of education around the world. I will not go into the detailed account of the history, theory foundations or the current research related to media education (also known as media literacy in some countries, e.g. the USA) because there is already an abundance of different print and online resources available (see References). What I want to say introducing this collection of activities is why I think media education is important in teaching English as a foreign language. As teachers of English we teach grammar to our students, but not just for the sake of their ability to put in the correct form of the verb in a sentence or pass a test in the end of the semester. We teach grammar, as with any other aspect of the language, so that our students can communicate in English successfully, understand oral and written speech, speak and write. What are the main sources of the English language for our students We are – I refer to our own speech and the textbook, sometimes supplemented by audiotapes. What can we do to take our students out from the textbook context and into a “real world” context The best way would be the immersion into the English-language and culture, preferably by sending them to England or the United States for 6 months. And while this is possible for some young people, most of our students cannot do that. But what we can do is to bring part of the English language world into our classroom. Where do we obtain our knowledge about foreign cultures and foreign countries Besides our personal experiences we gain it from the media- television, radio, feature films, Internet, music, etc. Media has become an indispensable part of our lives; children spend more time watching TV than on doing their homework, media are sometimes called “a parallel school”! Direct or indirect influence of media on our lives is growing constantly, and traditional literacy skills- the ability to read and to write print texts, must be supplemented with media literacy skills- the ability to “read” and “write” audiovisual materials along with print media texts (television programs, films, web sites, advertisements, etc.). You could challenge me by saying that films, audio tapes with stories or dialogues of native speakers, songs, authentic newspaper articles have been used by the teachers of English for decades, that using technology is not a novel concept. So how is media education different The argument for media education is that, drawing upon the students’ real life experiences, it teaches about the media, opposed to teaching with the media (or ТСО in Russian). I’ll cite my two favorite definitions of media literacy, one by the American professor Dr. Renee Hobbs: “the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate messages in the variety of forms” (Hobbs, 1997), and the other by Canadian professor, Chris Worsnop: “critical understanding of how the media work, how we interact with them and how we can make the most of them” (Worsnop, 1999). The last point made by Worsnop, “how we can make the most of them” in our case would be how. Teaching about the media, we can assist our students’ learning process of the English language and cultures of the English-speaking countries. We can also motivate our students, enhance our lessons, and develop students’ critical thinking, encourage them to become active viewers, listeners, thus becoming producers of their own messages.



Глава 1. Фотография Фотография стала первым средством массовой информации, которое могло показать людям «реальное» изображение других людей, знакомых и географически отдаленных мест и событий. Сегодня, фотография продолжает оставаться неотъемлемым компонентом новостей, любых печатных медиа от газет и журналов до книг. Глядя на фотоизображение, мы можем улыбнуться, нахмуриться или задуматься. Как в детстве мы пролистывали книгу в поиске картинок, так часто просматривая газетные заголовки, мы останавливаем взгляд на фотографиях. Фотоальбомы с запечатленными радостными или торжественными моментами оживляют наши воспоминания... Может ли фотография считаться объективным отражением реальности Как фотография отображает замысел автора Какие средства используются для достижения желаемого эффекта Учитель может помочь своим ученикам интерпретировать фотоизображения, способствуя тем самым развитию навыков критического мышления. Несмотря на то, что тематика глав может использоваться учителями в произвольном порядке, адаптировано к уровню учащихся, и пройденному языковому материалу, фотография занимает первую главу, потому что, по сути, фотография является ключевым элементом визуальных медиа и принципы композиции, которые будут рассмотрены в этой главе, можно использовать и для анализа аудиовизуальных медиатекстов.

Unit 1.Photography “Photography is a system of visual editing. At bottom, it is a matter of surrounding with a frame a portion of one's cone of vision, while standing in the right place at the right time. Like chess, or writing, it is a matter of choosing from among given possibilities, but in the case of photography the number of possibilities is not finite but infinite.” John Szarkowski ( director emeritus of the Department of Photography at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, the author of The Photographer's Eye, Photography Until Now, and many other works on photography) Useful sites: http://photographymuseum.com, www.cnn.com (a year in pictures), http://www.time.com/time/yip/2003.

Technology and materials: photo cameras, photographs.

Unit objectives:

students will:

- describe the photo in English;

- identify and describe the basic composition terms (framing, arrangement, placement, lighting, color);

- discuss photo images;

- take photos, display them for the class and explain their intentions as photographers.

Activity1. Family Album.

Media concepts: representation Language skills: speaking, listening.

For this activity ask your students to bring their baby pictures to class.. First have them put all their pictures on one table, shuffle them and ask the students to choose one picture (but not their own). Each student is to describe the child in the picture and, together with class, guess who is depicted in the picture. Talk to the students about photography in our lives. For example, family albums are, in a way, a family’s history, written not in words, but in images. Usually these are the images of happy moments in life, like a birthday celebration, vacation, friends’ party, a new baby in the family, etc. Even after many years, the photographs have a power to trigger emotions and memories connected to the moment when they were taken. What are characteristics of family pictures (E.g.

people usually pose standing or sitting in a row, smiling, holding each other, etc.) How many of you have ever taken a picture of family or friends What are some other objects that you photographed (pets, landscape, historical sights, etc.) How many of you have your own camera Photography was invented in 1827, and the word comes from 2 Greek words: photo (light) and graph (to write). What does the word “photography” literally mean in this case (Writing with light). Cameras have changed greatly during their relatively short history.

What types of cameras are familiar to you What are recent types of cameras that have appeared on the market (Digital camera) How are they different from others Activity 2. Who am I Media concepts: representation, language, audience Language skills: speaking, listening.

In case digital cameras are available, for the home assignment, ask your students to form teams of 3-4 people, and take picture of someone they know well. Try to have the photograph tell us something about the personality of a person in the picture (using props, body language, gestures, facial expression, background). In the next lesson, students exchange photos with another group (e.g. there are groups in your class, each consisting of 4 students, so there are 3 pictures. Group A gives their picture to Group B, Group B- to Group C, Group C- to Group A.

Each group tries to decide who the person is, what he/she is like, what is his/hers occupation, mood at the time when the photo is taken, his/her personality, hobbies and importantly, what made them think so). After each group presents their findings to the class, the authors of the photograph tell their version. This is a good exercise for realizing how different people looking at the same photo see different things.

Another option:

In preparation for this lesson, find a photo of a man or a woman and bring it to class. Show the photo to your students and ask them to write down what they think of this person. How old is he/she What is he/she (What does she/he do for a living) What kind of person do you think he/she is Why do you think so (What elements of the photo made you think so) Activity 3. Reading a photograph Media concepts: representative, language Language skills: reading, speaking, listening This activity will introduce the students to some basics of composition. You can write them on the blackboard or provide photocopies of this page for your students. (Adapted from Seeing and Believing by Ellen Krueger and Mary T.Christel) FRAME Limits the field of vision or draws the viewer’s attention to a specific aspect of the shot PLACEMENT Position of the camera in relationship to the subject of the shot (close-up shot, medium shot, long shot, high angle, low angle) ARRANGEMENT The physical relationship or position of people, objects, and background in a single shot (foreground, middle ground, background) LIGHTING Spot, concentrated or diffused COLOR Saturation (intensification of a specific color within a shot) Prepare and show to the students some photographs from the book, slides or single copies. A good source is the web site of Pulitzer-winning photographs at www.pulitzer.org. Sample questions to ask at this stage:





• What is the first thing that you notice Why What attracts your attention to it • When you continue to look at the photograph, what else do you see • What is in the foreground, middle ground and background of the picture • How does the photographer use color and lighting • What is the camera position From where could this picture be taken, e.g.

was the photographer sitting on the ground, or standing on hill, or stairs, or from a helicopter How would the main subject of the picture look if it was taken from another angle Why do you think the photographer chose this angle • What is the message of this photograph Do you agree with the proverb “A picture is worth a thousand words” What did the photographer want to say with this picture Activity 4. In Focus Media concepts: technology, language, representation.

Language skills: writing Ask the students to produce a photo, paying attention to the choice of objects, camera angle, lighting, and so on. Encourage them to be creative and come up with interesting images of a subject they choose. They can gain some professional advice by visiting www.kodak.com, a useful site that gives tips for taking better pictures and shows examples. Students bring their photos into the classroom, and on a separate sheet of paper, write the text (3-5 sentences explaining their idea, the meaning of the photograph). Photos and written texts are displayed on the table randomly; students match pictures with texts, then the photographs with the written text can be displayed on a bulletin board or other surface.

Activity 5. Story Time Media concepts: representation, audiences.

Language skills: writing, speaking For this activity you can use original photos or make photocopies of pictures from different sources or if the computer lab is available, you can use Power Point. Divide the class into groups of 4-5. Give each group a set of the same 5-photographs. Each group should then put the photos in order that, in their opinion, could tell a story. Students in groups should develop the story and in the end of the class present it for their classmates.

Глава 2. Кино Использование кинофильмов в учебных целях имеет давние традиции в российской и зарубежной педагогике. Часто уроки истории, литературы, иностранного языка, во время которых учитель «показывал кино» оставались в памяти учеников как наиболее «интересные». Однако использование киноматериалов на занятиях носило второстепенный характер. Фильм оставался одним из технических средств обучения, или ТСО. В концепции же медиаобразования, сам фильм как медиатекст становится объектом изучения. Важно, чтобы учащиеся после просмотра могли не только пересказать сюжет фильма, но и проанализировать его форму. Всегда ли мы обращаем внимание на взаимосвязь формы и содержания фильма Понимаем ли мы коды и условности того или иного жанра Задумываемся ли мы над тем, почему авторы фильма используют те или иные средства и для чего Ошибкой было бы считать, что навыки критического, вдумчивого зрителя необходимы только профессионалам в области киноиндустрии. Нашей целью не является также и воспитание будущих кинокритиков. Извлечь пользу из одного из самого популярного времяпрепровождения молодых людей и научить анализировать художественные, технические и коммерческие аспекты кинофильма - вот наши задачи на пути к главной цели - способствовать развитию критического мышления школьников и студентов.

Unit 2. Film “Film as dream, film as music…No art passes our conscience in the way film does, and goes directly to our feelings, deep down into the dark rooms of our souls.” (Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director) Useful sites: www.allmovie.com, www.filmland.com, www.paramount.com, www.imdb.com, www.hollywood.com, http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/TechHelp/Storyboarding4.html http://www.mediaed.org.uk/posted_documents/Storyboarding.html Technology and materials: TV set, VCR, a movie poster.

Unit objectives:

students will:

- discuss their film preferences;

- identify and describe general cinema terms and professions in the media industry;

- analyze the structure of a film poster;

- create a movie poster;

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