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ГВОЗДЕВА Анна Анатольевна НАЧЕРНАЯ Светлана Владимировна РЯБЦЕВА Елена Викторовна ЦИЛЕНКО Любовь Петровна Редактор З.Г. Чернова Компьютерное макетирование М. А. Филатовой Подписано в печать 20.05.04 Формат 60 84 / 16. Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная.
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Тираж 100 экз. С. 372М Издательско-полиграфический центр Тамбовского государственного технического университета, 392000, Тамбов, Советская, 106, к. 14 Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Тамбовский государственный технический университет ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ В МИР АРХИТЕКТУРЫ Сборник текстов на английском языке для студентов 1 курса архитектурно-строительных специальностей Тамбов Издательство ТГТУ 2004 УДК 802.0(076) ББК Ш13(Ан)я923 Д56 Рецензент:
Кандидат педагогических наук Е.А. Воротнева Составители:
А.А. Гвоздева, С.В. Начерная, Е.В. Рябцева, Л.П. Циленко Д56 Добро пожаловать в мир архитектуры:
Сборник текстов на английском языке / Сост.: А.А. Гвоздева, С.В. Начерная, Е.В.
Предлагаемые аутентичные тексты отвечают динамике современного научнотехнического прогресса, специфике существующих в университете специальностей, а также требованиям учебной программы по иностранному языку для студентов очной и заочной форм обучения высших учебных заведений технического профиля.
Сборник текстов предназначен для студентов первого курса архитектурностроительных специальностей.
More than an instrument to stir the love of the arts, the Bolshoi Theatre is very nearly a musical instrument itself. The auditorium is trimmed in wood and its acoustics is arranged to magnify and amplify sounds from the stage. It is among the most acoustically perfect houses in the world.
Outside, the faade has been restored after a bomb hit it in 1941 during the Second World War. It features the figure of Apollo and his quadriga (chariot) over a structure resembling the Parthenon. Although it looks impressive from the front, the Theatre is in need of renovation after putting on 300 performances a year for 150 years.
The ten-year project is being overseen by UNESCO in cooperation with the government of the Russian Federation. It is financed through donations from governments, corporations, and individual benefactors.
The first phase involves the construction of a building next door on Teatralnaya Square.
That building will be a sister theater to the Bolshoi with a stage that the Bolshoi will perform on during phase two – when the original theater will be renovated.
Once complete, the complex will include both theaters, an administration building, rehearsal halls, a greenhouse, a building to house the Bolshoi Theatre Club, a museum, conference hall, and workshop buildings.
• 1776 – The Bolshoi Theatre is established by Prince Peter Urusov.
• 1781 – The original building by Christian Rosberg and M. Medox is erected.
• 1805 – The building is destroyed by fire.
• 1825 – The second building is erected by Osip Bove at a cost of R 2,000,000.00.
• 1953 – The building is destroyed in a three-day fire.
• 1955 – The third building is erected. It is designed by Albert Kavos based on the design by Osip Bove.
• 1902 – Due to settling of the foundation, the walls of the auditorium shift, wedging the exit doors of two sections closed, trapping the audience inside.
SAINT BASIL’S CATHEDRAL Saint Basil's Cathedral is the most recognizable symbol of Russia. Its colorful onion domes are instantly recognizable around the world as emblems of Moscow and the Russian Orthodox Church. The church is actually the Cathedral of the Protection of the Mother of God, known as "Theotokos" or "Bogoroditsa" in the Orthodox Church.
But it is mostly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, named after the man who roamed the streets of Moscow trying to win converts during the reign of Ivan the Terrible (Tsar Ivan IV or Ivan Grozny). In spite of the brutal Russian winters and unforgiving summers, he many times conducted his crusade naked.
It is the domes that make this, and other Russian Orthodox architecture unique. Saint Basil's has a total of ten towers with domes. The largest is at the center of the cathedral known as the Church of the Feast of the Pokhrov.
There are four more, each topping a church, located on a cardinal point, north, south, east, and west. Then an additional four at the northeast, southeast, northwest, and southwest points.
Each of these eight churches represents an important historical event in Russian history. Then there is one that does not stand on a rose point. It was built in 1555 and is located over the grave of Saint Basil. It became part of the Cathedral in 1588.
The cathedral may have been designed by Russian architects Posnik and Barma. But the early records are confusing, and they may be a single person. There is also a legend that the cathedral was designed by an Italian architect who was blinded so he could never create a more beautiful building. The root of this legend may lie in the fact that between 1475 and 1510 Italian architects were employed to restore the Kremlin and two of its churches.
In some ways, it is amazing that the cathedral has survived as long as it has. Two of the world's most ruthless leaders – Napoleon and Stalin – tried to destroy it. Napoleon tried to burn it down with little success. Stalin wanted to have it razed so his military parades would have more room. Another Moscow legend has it that the demolition was stopped by an architect who threatened to slit his own throat on the cathedral steps in protest.
CATHEDRAL OF SAINT MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL If there's one thing the Russians excel at it's religious architecture. Across the country thousands of churches abandoned under Soviet rule are now being restored. There are a few, however, that escaped decay because they were thought to be of special value to the people. One of them is the Cathedral of Saint Michel the Archangel – one of three cathedrals in or near the Kremlin, and one of two actually on Kremlin grounds.
Like most other Russian Orthodox churches it features the special onion domes topped by gilded crosses that are commonplace. But this wasn't built by a Russian. Italian architect Alevisio Novi was charged with rebuilding the great cathedral in Cathedral Square, also known as the "City of God." Moscow was to become the Third Rome, after Constantinople and, of course, the original Rome. Though at a casual glance it appears authentic Russian, his design is Italian Renaissance at its fundamentals even though he was required to make it palatable to Byzantine tastes. Inside, the tomb of Ivan the Terrible and dozens of other members of the Russian Royal family line the walls.
THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT Built by Charles Barry and August Pugin in flamboyant neo-Gothic style between 1837 and 1860, the Houses of Parliament provide chambers, lobbies and offices for politicians, linked by some two miles (3.2 km) of passages. In the House of Commons, the Speaker presides over debates, the Government and Opposition facing each other over the dispatch boxes, with Ministers on the front benches. Bills are passed from here to the House of Lords, where some are amended.
The Houses of Parliament are often referred to as the Palace of Westminster, having been constructed on the site of the home of monarchs from Edward I to Henry VIII. The old palace was destroyed in a calamitous fire in 1834, leaving only the medieval Westminster Hall, the cloister and undercroft of St Stephen's Chapel, and the Jewel Tower built by Edward III in for his treasures. Westminster Hall, scene of many extravagant royal celebrations including coronation banquets, is dominated by a massive hammer – beam angel roof.
The much-photographed Big Ben in St Stephen's Tower is actually the name of the huge 1/2-ton bell that strikes the hours. Old pennies are used to adjust the clock's mechanism, helping it to keep in perfect time. The minute hands on each of the four dials are as high as a double-decker bus.
BIG BEN For tourists, photographers, residents, and even terrorists, this is the symbol of London. Big Ben is one of London's best-known landmarks, and looks most spectacular at night when the clock faces are illuminated. You even know when parliament is in session, because a light shines above the clock face.
The four dials of the clock are 23 feet square, the minute hand is 14 feet long and the figures are 2 feet high. Minutely regulated with a stack of coins placed on the huge pendulum, Big Ben is an excellent timekeeper, which has rarely stopped.
Officially called the Clock Tower, millions of people around the world know it as "Big Ben." In truth, Big Ben is the name of the bell inside the clock, not the tower. But trying to convince people of that is akin to trying to stop a train with your car: it's possible, but not worth the effort.
Not a building on its own, the 320-foot Clock Tower is one of two towers flanking England's Houses of Parliament. It was built after a fire in 1834 destroyed most of the existing structure. That inferno was caused by the burning of an abacus that was used for bookkeeping.
The fire got out of control and took most of the building with it. Charles Barry was the winner of a competition to design the new center of government. He went with a Renaissance style, and married it with Neo-Gothic details by Augustus Pugin, including the towers.
Inside the tower is Big Ben – a 13-ton bell that sounds the hours as time passes. There is no firm documentation on how the bell got its name. Some think it was named after boxer Ben Caunt. Others believe it was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, a rather hefty gentleman who was a commissioner in Westminster.
This bell came originally from the old Palace of Westminster, it was given to the Dean of St. Paul’s by William III. Before returning to Westminster to hang in it's present home, it was refashioned in White chapel in 1858. The BBC first broadcast the chimes on the 31st December 1923 – there is a microphone in the turret connected to Broadcasting House.
During the second world war in 1941, an incendiary bomb destroyed the Commons chamber of the Houses of Parliament, but the clock tower remained intact and Big Ben continued to keep time and strike away the hours, its unique sound was broadcast to the nation and around the world, a welcome reassurance of hope to all who heard it.
There are even cells within the clock tower where Members of Parliament can be imprisoned for a breach of parliamentary privilege, though this is rare; the last recorded case was in 1880.
The tower is not open to the general public, but those with a "special interest" may arrange a visit to the top of the Clock Tower through their local (UK) MP.
Either way, it is the quintessential London experience to emerge from the Underground, walk along the Thames on a foggy Sunday morning and hear Big Ben toll. If you're not in London, it can still be heard frequently on the radio via the BBC World Service on AM in Europe, and satellite and short-wave elsewhere.
• 1949 – Big Ben's time falls behind by 4 minutes when a flock of birds perches on the minute hand.
• 1962 – Big Ben sounds the New Year ten minutes late because of a buildup of heavy snow on its hands.
• 20 March 2004 – Protestors scale Big Ben and unfurl a banner protesting war.
10 DOWNING STREET The modest faade of this building does not reveal the power behind its legendary black door. This is the home of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. It is from this place that, for hundreds of years, power has radiated throughout the kingdom.
Though the portal appears modest, it conceals a much more complicated building inside.
Number 10 is connected to another building, which used to be a standalone mansion. The Downing Street location gets its name from Sir George Downing, a civil servant who built the street on the site of the demolished Axe Brewery. It has been abandoned since the early 16th century. When that building was leveled, it became a residential zone.
The earliest record of a home on the spot is from 1581. But the history goes back much farther than that. In the ninth century, the area was known as the Isle of Thorns. By the 11th century, King Canute had a palace constructed in the area. Subsequent rulers expanded their royal dwellings, and the area became commonly known as the seat of government. The last palace in this neighborhood was Whitehall, which burned down in 1698.
However, it wasn't until 1732 that King George II designated Number 10 the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, who is also the Prime Minister. The first Prime Minister to live here was Sir Robert Walpole; the last private citizen to live here was a Mister Chicken who left in 1735.
The mailbox outside reads, "First Lord of the Treasury." Technically speaking, it is his official residence. But since the Prime Minister is also the First Lord of the Treasury, it is the de facto Prime Minister's residence. The building is made of yellow bricks. These were blackened by decades of exposure to sooty London air. They were cleaned in the 1960's, and painted black because the public couldn't cope with the yellow color. It is said that the front door of the building can only be opened from the inside.
• 1500 – The Axe Brewery is abandoned and the land redeveloped.
• 1581 – First record of a residential home in this location.
• 1698 – Whitehall Palace burns down.
• 1732 – The building is designated the official home of the Prime Minister.
• 1732 – Number 10 is linked to a larger mansion to create a single building.
• 1735 – Mister Chicken moves out. The first British Prime Minister moves in.
• 1894 – Electric lights are installed.
• 1960 – Renovated to prevent collapse. The faade was preserved, but everything else gutted and rebuilt.
• 7 February 1991 – The building is attacked by a mortar launched from a nearby van by Irish terrorists. The bomb landed in the backyard and blew out the windows.
• 1993 – The first computer cables are installed.
TRAFALGAR SQUARE A large open square surrounded by wonderful buildings including the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, and the building used as the fictional home of "Universal Exports" – James Bond's cover company in all the 007 films.
On a lazy Sunday morning great clouds of pigeons gather to pick up scraps from passersby.
Admiral Nelson surveys London from his perch 145 feet above the city. This monument was erected in 1843 to honor his victories abroad. At the base of the monument are four sculptures depicting his battles in Egypt, Denmark, Cape Saint Vincent, and Trafalgar, where he died in 1805. After the battle he was placed in a barrel of alcohol and shipped back to England for burial. That's where we get the expression "pickled" referring to a drunken person.
It's also the root of the more obscure phrase "Tapping the Admiral," describing the process of getting drunk. Nevertheless, the four images were cast from cannons brought back to England after his triumphs in far-off lands. Trafalgar Square is also where the national Christmas tree is put up each year. It is an annual gift from Norway to thank England for taking in their royal family during the Second World War.
WESTMINSTER ABBEY One of the "must see" sights in London, Westminster Abbey is known the world over.
What is unknown however is just how old it is. The first church on the site is believed to have been constructed around the year 700. There are records of a church existing there as early as 1040 when Edward the Confessor was crowned.
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