Фамилии по-английски LET`S DESIGN AND BUILD Издательство ТГТУ (по-английски) Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Тамбовский государственный технический университет А.А. Гвоздева, С.В. Начерная, Е.В. Рябцева, Л.П. Циленко ДАВАЙТЕ ПРОЕКТИРОВАТЬ И СТРОИТЬ Учебное пособие по английскому языку Тамбов Издательство ТГТУ 2004 УДК 802.0 (076) ББК Ш13 (Ан) я 923 Г61 Рецензент:
кандидат педагогических наук Е.А. Воротнева А.А. Гвоздева, С.В. Начерная, Е.В. Рябцева, Л.П. Циленко Г6 Давайте проектировать и строить: Учебное посо1 бие по английскому языку / Авторы-сост.: Тамбов:
Изд-во Тамб. гос. техн. ун-та, 2004, 92 с.
Данное пособие предназначено для обучения различным видам чтения профессиональных текстов, владение которыми необходимо будущим специалистам, а также формирования устной речи, письма, переводческих навыков. Эффективное практическое овладение языком обеспечивается системой языковых упражнений, а также ролевых игр, стимулирующих интерес студентов и их творческую активность.
Гарнитура Тimes New Roman. Объем: 0000 усл. печ. л.; 0000 уч.-изд. л.
Тираж 000 экз. С. 000М Издательско-полиграфический центр Тамбовского государственного технического университета, 392000, Тамбов, Советская, 106, к. 14 UNIT 1 Warming Up 1. When did the Gothic style appear 2. What are the characteristic features of this style 3. Where did the Gothic style flourish 4. Why is this style called Gothic 5. What famous buildings of this style do you know GOTHIC: ENGINEERED FOR HEAVEN If ever architecture expressed spiritual ideals, it would be in the lofty Gothic structures of medieval Europe and Great Britain. From the remarkable Saint-Denis in France to the Alteneuschule Synagogue in Prague, Gothic was a style that humbled man and glorified God. Yet, with its innovative engineering, the style was a testament to human ingenuity.
The earliest complete Gothic structure is the ambulatory of the abbey of Saint-Denis in France. Built between 1140 and 1144, the church became a model for most of the late 12th-century French cathedrals, including those at Chartres and Senlis. However, features of the Gothic style are found in earlier buildings in Normandy and elsewhere.
Gothic architecture is usually associated with Christianity, but the style became so predominant that builders routinely used Gothic ideas for all types of religious structures. Constructed in 1279, Prague's Old-New Synagogue was an early example. The small building features a classic Gothic roofline and eye-lid windows.
Gothic and Renaissance design combine in the interior. Also known by the names Staronova and Alteneuschule, the Old-New Synagogue has survived wars and other catastrophes to become the oldest surviving synagogue in Europe.
Secular buildings also took on Gothic forms. The style found expression in town halls, royal palaces, courthouses, hospitals, castles, bridges and fortresses. However, in medieval days, most building was done for and by the church, and the bold new ideas of Gothic design proved to be especially suited for religious celebration and prayer. Medieval man considered himself an imperfect reflection of the divine light of God, and Gothic architecture was the ideal expression of this view. New techniques of construction permitted buildings to soar to amazing new heights, dwarfing anyone who stepped inside. Moreover, the concept of divine light was suggested by the airy quality of Gothic buildings, which were much lighter than churches in the earlier Romanesque style.
Structures in Romanesque style often included pointed arches, but builders of the day did not capitalize on the advantages of this shape. Gothic builders discovered the amazing strength and stability of pointed arches. In Gothic buildings, the weight of the roof was supported by the arches rather than the walls. This meant that walls could be thinner.
Romanesque churches relied on barrel vaulting. Gothic builders introduced the dramatic technique of ribbed vaulting. While barrel vaulting carried weight on continuous solid walls, ribbed vaulting used columns to support the weight. The ribs also delineated the vaults and gave a sense of unity to the structure.
In order to prevent the outward collapse of the arches, Gothic architects began using a revolutionary "flying buttress" system. Freestanding brick or stone supports were attached to the exterior walls by an arch or a halfarch.
Since the walls themselves were no longer the primary supports, Gothic buildings could include large areas of glass. Huge stained glass windows and a profusion of smaller windows created the effect of lightness and space.
Cathedrals in the High Gothic style became increasingly elaborate. Over several centuries, builders added towers, pinnacles and ornamentation to the lavish Chartres Cathedral. More than 2000 sculpted figures decorate Chartres.
In addition to religious figures, many Gothic cathedrals are heavily ornamented with strange, leering creatures. These gargoyles are not merely decorative. Originally, the sculptures were waterspouts to protect the foundation from rain. Since most people in medieval days could not read, the carvings took on the important role of illustrating lessons from the scriptures.
Gothic buildings were based on the traditional plan used by basilicas. However, single units were integrated into a unified spatial scheme.
Gothic architecture reigned for 400 years. It spread from northern France, swept throughout England and Western Europe, crept into Scandinavia and Central Europe, and even found its way into the Near East. However, the 14th century brought a devastating plague and extreme poverty. Building slowed, and by the end of the 1400s, Gothic architecture was replaced by other styles.
Scornful of exuberant, excessive ornamentation, artisans in Renaissance Italy compared medieval builders to German "Goth" barbarians from earlier times. Thus, after the style had faded from popularity, the term "Gothic" was coined.
However, Gothic ideas never completely vanished. During the nineteenth century, builders in Europe, England and the United States borrowed medieval traditions to create an eclectic Victorian style Gothic Revival.
Even small private homes were given arched windows, lacy pinnacles and an occasional leering gargoyle.
Active Vocabulary 1) lofty – возвышенный, величественный 2) humbled – смиренный, бедный, простой 3) innovative – новаторский 4) testament – завет, завещание 5) ingenuity – изобретательность 6) ambulatory – галерея для прогулок 7) predominant – преобладающий, доминирующий 8) secular – светский 9) imperfect – несовершенный 10) divine – божественный 11) to soar – возвышаться, подниматься 12) to dwarf – затмевать, подчеркивать незначительность 13) to capitalize – капитализировать 14) barrel vaulting – цилиндрический свод 15) ribbed – ребристый 16) to delineate – изображать 17) pinnacle – шпиц, бельведер 18) lavish – щедрый, обильный 19) gargoyle – горгулья 20) waterspout – водосточная труба 21) carving – резьба по дереву 22) scripture – священное писание 23) basilica – базилика 24) spatial – пространственный 25) devastating plague – опустошающая чума 26) scornful – насмешливый, презрительный 27) exuberant – обильный, пышный, богатый 28) to vanish – исчезать, пропадать 29) leering – зловещий, злобный Exercises on the Text Translate the following word combinations from Russian into English 1. средневековая Европа 2. преимущества формы 3. защитить строение от дождя 4. окна в виде арок 5. зловещая горгулья Fill in the gaps with the words given below 1. Gothic style became so predominant that builders used the ideas for all types of … structures.
2. Gothic architecture was the ideal expression of the … light of God.
3. Romanesque structures included pointed … 4. Gothic buildings were based on … 5. Gothic and Renaissance … combine in the interior.
------------------- barrel, design, religious, shape, gargoyle, divine, arches, fortress, basilicas, castle Arrange the sentences in the right order 1. a / ingenuity / Gothic / to / was / human / testament / style 2. earlier / features / in / Gothic / of / are / buildings / the / Normandy / in / style / found 3. arches / discovered / Gothic / of / the / strength / pointed / and / builders / amazing / stability 4. other / was / Gothic / styles / replaced / architecture / by 5. the / end / huge / space / of / glass / created / windows / of / effect / and / a / stained / lightness / profusion / windows / smaller Grammar Reference Порядок слов в английском предложении. Имя существительное. Артикли Some of these sentences are right but most are wrong. Correct the sentences that are wrong 1. I am going to buy some flowers.
2. I need a new jeans.
3. It is a lovely park with a lot of beautiful tree.
4. There was a woman in the car with two mens.
5. Sheep eat grass.
6. David is married and has three childs.
7. Most of my friend are student.
8. He put on his pajama and went to bed.
9. We went fishing but we did not catch many fish.
10. Do you know many persons in this town 11. I like your trouser. Where did you get it 12. The town centre is usually full of tourist.
13. I do not like mice. I am afraid of them.
14. This scissor is not very sharp.
Complete the sentences. Use -`s or -s` + a noun 1. David and Sue are husband and wife. David is… 2. This car belongs to Ann. It is… 3. The king lives in a very beautiful palace. The … is very beautiful.
4. I was with Elena at her house last night. I was … last night.
5. All the students have put their books on the table. All … are on the table.
6. My sister was born on 28th June. The 28th June is … 7. Mrs Penn makes delicious cakes. … are delicious.
8. My grandparents have a house next door to us. My … is next door to us.
9. Mr and Mrs Smith have a son, Chris. Mr and Mrs Smith are … Put in a/an or the 1. We enjoyed our holiday. … hotel was very nice.
2. "Can I ask a question" "Of course. What do you want to ask" 3. You look very tired. You need … holiday.
4. "Where is Tom" "He is in … bathroom." 5. Jane is … interesting person. You must meet her.
6. Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to … city centre 7. Shall we go out for … meal this evening 8. It is … nice morning. Let us go for … walk.
9. Amanda is … student. When she finishes her studies, she wants to be … journalist. She lives with two friends in … flat near …college where she is studying. … flat is small but she likes it.
10. Peter and Mary have got two children, … boy and … girl. … boy is seven years old and … girl is three.
Peter works in … factory. Mary has not got … job at the moment.
Role Play Discuss the role of the Gothic style in the history of the world architecture UNIT Warming Up 1. When did the Baroque appear 2. What famous Baroque buildings do you know 3. When did the Rococo period start 4. What characteristic features of the Rococo style can you name 5. Do you remember any outstanding Baroque&Rococo architects DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN BAROQUE AND ROCOCO Quite to the opposite of the Rococo soul, the soul of the Baroque is characterized by austerity that inspires silence and meditation.
The basic theme of silence is vividly portrayed in the range of works going from Caravaggio to Georges de La Tour, for instance in the latter's Magdalene with the Smoking Flame. Another striking example is Magdalene Meditating, an early 17th-century work from the Neapolitan school. Following in the wake of Caravaggio, this school of silence would spread everywhere across Europe.
Claude Meylan's "Salome" provides still another depiction of silence, of the most fundamental of dialogues (that of Life and Death). This work illustrates the repercussions of the message left by Caravaggio, a message of what is intrinsic to man, in a painting that – in the light-and-dark contrasts of grays surrounding the face of Salome – conveys the latter's newly awakened horror at the sacrifice of John the Baptist.
During the Baroque period, this concern with the essence of life is to be found even in works by the more mundane artists. Indeed, among the mundane greats on the Baroque scene, it had become the fashion to adopt an economy of means, in an endeavor to attain a more informal intimacy, to create works of a more confidential tone. This can be seen, for instance, in Guido Reni's "Saint Joseph and Child", a work that, although unclaimed by the contemporary world, did have its hour of glory during the 17th century. And why was this so Because, at the time, Reni was far more famous than all the Caravaggios and La Tours of the world, who have since been rediscovered. Reni represented a high point in Baroque art history. Moreover, in this work he allowed himself the luxury of tackling an extremely rare subject. The very strangeness of its subject is what became its glory: instead of portraying Virgin and Child, as was generally the case, it stages Father and Child. Although renowned in particular, for his bright colors and the elegance of his compositions, here Reni nevertheless sought to rein in the methods of his art the better to convey the intrinsic nature of this Father-Child dialogue.
The great aesthetic impact of the Baroque made it felt all the more in works dealing with such serious subject matter as the Christian epic. In this vein, the Piety (Virgin Mary mourning over the dead body of Christ) was one of the major themes to be broached, precisely because, here again, Life and Death are allied. The theme involves a perspective of day and night, corresponding with the light-and-dark philosophic mood marking the entire 17th century.
The Baroque approach to the Piety centered on the theme's dramatic essence, as beautifully illustrated in the work of Andriaen van der Werff, a painter who, notwithstanding his Flemish origin, made a career for himself in Italy. Van der Werff’s Piety is entirely in black and blue: everything other than the Virgin's cloak – that is, everything other than this symbol of life – is painted in white and black, from the body of Christ to the darkness of the background. Another stunning example is to be found in the Piety of the Venetian painter Giovanni Battista Piazzetta: the light marking the great arch stretching the corpse in the foreground drives back the darkness, from where the work's feminine central figure seems to burst forth. Here again, the play of light and shadow translates a fundamental dialogue and, as such, proves itself intrinsically Baroque.
These few examples of the 17th-century school of painting ranging from Caravaggio to Piazzetta illustrate an approach that was severe and contemplative, focusing on silence, on the essence of life. It was only natural for this same approach to carry over to Baroque architecture, which can thus also be characterized as austere and basic.
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