WWW.DISSERS.RU

    !


476 4 :

1)..,..,..,.,..

.,,,,.,.

,,,.

1990. 1991.

,.,,, : 1) T95-4109-R -.

.. -,, -.

.. -,,.

.. -,,.

. -, - DIW,.

.. -,, DIW,.

1998 477 ;.

. -,,,.,., (,, ).,,.

,, -.,.

,., : " " 1. : - 1.1.

:

,.

,,,,,..

, -, 1994. 478 4 60%, 10% -,,,,, 20% -.

.,.

DIW,,,,. 1991. 80%,, 1992. 65%, 1995. -.,,.

,.,.

1991..,..,,.

,,,,.,,,,,, 1996. 1995.

DIW,,..

1996., 1992. 40%.

:,,.,.

,,,,.,,,,.

1998 479,,,,.. 1200,, DIW.

, 1995.,, 1996.

: 1995.,,. : 1996. 59%.

., 1995.,,, 79%, 1995.,. 37, 1995.

, -.

, :

1) ;

2) ;

3).

., 1995.,.

1.2.,,,..,.,,,.

.. 1991-1995. 745,., 622,2.. ( ), 480, 220-230..,.

, 1996. 74% . 72%,..,,, 60%,.,.

.

, ( ) . ,,..

,.

, (.., -., 1997),,.

. 1996.,.

, 20%. - 5%.. 3%, 20%.

,,. 1998 ,.

,,,,,., ( -),. .

99%, 95%,.

22% ;

43%. 49% 28% 1989.,, -,.

,,.,, :

, 1989.,,, ;

,, -.

-, -. 1% 5%. . ( 10 ),,,.,,,.

.,,, 482, 2).,,.

65% 1992. 1996. 70%.,, -. (.,,.,.,.,..).

.

. .

.,,. 2%..

,,,.,., ( ) , (.

. ).

,.,.

1.3. :,,.

.

,,.,,. 2) :, ( ).

1998 ( ),,,..,, /,. 1, ( 1997., 71 ).

1.

, ( ) 1 4,53 0,2 4,41 0,3 4,30 0,4 4,22 0,5 4,14 0,6 4,09 0,7 4,04 0,8 3,96 0,9 3,85 1,10 3,85 1,11 3,81 0,12 3,80 1,13 3,74 1,14 3,73 1,15 3,67 1,16 3,64 1,17 3,57 1,18 3,52 1,19 3,51 1,20 - 3,45 1,21 3,43 1,22 3,42 1,23 3,31 1,24 / 3,16 1,25 2,82 1,26 2,73 1,: STRATOS Group, 1994.

..

,,,,., 484.,,,.

1,.,, .

, (1993.),, 90% / 10% -.

2. :

.,,.

,,,.,.

, :

- ;

- - ;

-,.

,.,.

2.1.,,,,.,, -.

,,.,,, - 1998,.,, ..

,,.

.,.,..

,,,,,,..,.

.,,,,.,,,,,..

, -.

,.,.,,,.

-, 1994-1995.,.

.,.,. -,.

., 486 -.

,,,. .,. psevdo-sporto, , . -, - , - ..

,.,..

.,.,.,,,,..,..

-.,,., - -.,.., -..,, ,,.

.,,., 1998,.. -.,,..

( - - ),,.

,., -., -, -.,., - ,.

,.,,.,,.

, -,, -.

, -,.

-,., -.

2.2.,, :

1) ( );

488 2) ;

3).

-, -.,.,, ( ).

..

,,.,,. :

1), ;

2),,, ;

3),, -.,,, -.

,,.

3),.

,..

:

1) ;

2) ;

3) ;

3) .

, (), (), 1998.

1998 4) ;

5).

2.

,,.,.

2.

, , - - - - - - -, - - - - - - - - ; - - -, -, -, ; - - - -, - - ;, -, -,. -.

-.

.

- - - - - - -, - - - - - - -, - ; - -, - -, -. - - - - -..

.

490, - - - - - - -,, - - - ; -,,, - -,,,. ;, -, - -...

- - - - -, -,, - - -, ;,, - - - -,,, - - -, -..,.

-., -.,..

- - - - - / - ;, - - -, ; - -,. - ; -.

- -...

1998 - 1. -.,,, [7].,, : 1996. $., 1990-1991.: 1993-1994.

2.

,., 1995-.,, .

, ;

.

, , -. ,, ,.

,,,, -.,.

,,.

.,, -,..,, 8,,.,.

492. 1997. 1,5 1996. $43. -, : 12, - 2,5 ( 3,15 1985.).

,, .

2.2.1., -.,.,,.

,., (,, ). ..

,,,,,., ,,, ( ). , (, ),.

.

- 2. , . 1998.

-.,, ( ).

,, -... ,.

,,.

1998..,,.,,,.

, .,,,.

- 3. - + ,.. .

,. ,. ,.,.,, ,.- 494., ,, . - 1998. .

,, .,. .

, -.

-.

2..,,,.

,,,. ( ,, ),.

,, :, , , ,.

2.2.2. ,, .,, ,,,.

,, :

1), ;

2),,,.

1998,, -.,, . (, ).

,,., .

.

2.2.3..,,,.,, :, (,, ).

.

- 4. ,. , 4).

,, Panasonic, , , , . .,,. :,. "Karel", 4. 4).: http://www.bst.ru/index.htm.

496, .

,.,,., ,,....,.

2.2.4.

., -.,,,.

., ,., ,,. ,,,.

( R-Style), (,,,..).

- 5. - IDC, 1996., 20%. IDC, 1. 50., 1,486.. IDC,, 1998,.

, 1996.

,,. 66% ( 64% 1995.). IDC, , 1996. (17%)4).

,,,,, ( ), -, -., : 1) MS Windows 95;

2) MS Word 97; 3) MS Excel 97; 4) "-"; 5) ""; 6) "DISo " "DISCo"; 7) "" ""; 8) 4 Internet ""5).

,.

- 235., Internet RStyle 20 70. 285.6),,.

2.2.5.

,,.

,., : 1) (, 4).: http://www.vist.ru/vist/pages/contents/soft/oem.htm.

5).: http://www.newman.ru/RESELLERA/21/p109730.htm.

6).: http://www.newman.ru/RESELLERA/21/p109730.htm.

498 ); 2) ; 3).

, -., - .

,,, -. ,.

: 1) / 2) ( , ).

,.

,,,.,,,. .

,,,.,,,,.

1..,. //, 19.01.98.

2.. //, 15.09.97.

3.. I // -Daily, 7.08.98.

4.. //, 27.04. 1998.

5... -.:, 1995.. 156.

6. 2000. -.:, 1995.

1998 7.., //, 26, 1998.

8. Alfandari, G., Lee, U. (1995). Are Russian Enterprises Restructuring Proceedings of the conference Russia: Economic Policy and Enterprise Restructuring. - St. Petersburg, 1995.

9. Bim, A. (1996). Ownership, Control over the Enterprises and Strategies of Stockholders. - IIASA Working Papers.

10. Boiko, M., Shleifer, A., Vishny, R. (1995). Privatising Russia. - Cambridge, Mass.

MIT Press.

11. Breuel, B. (1992). Die Rolle fer Treuhandanstalt beim Umstrukturierungsprozess in den neuen Laendern. - In: Treuhandanstalt, Entschlossen sanieren. Berlin.

12. Doyle P. Marketing Management and Strategy (2nd. ed.). - Prentice Hall Europe, 1998.

13. Earle, J., Estrin, S. (1996). Privatization Versus Competition: Changing Enterprise Behavior in Russia. - IIASA Working Papers.

14. Gerling, K. Schmidt, K.-D. (1997). Restructuring and Competitiveness in the Transition Process: Evidence from an Eastern German Firm Panel. - Kiel Instute of World Economics.

15. Gerling, Schmidt, K.-D. (1997). On the Conpetitive Position of Eastern German Manufacturing: Why is Catching-up so Slow Paper, presented at the workshop Emerging Market Organization and Corporate Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. - Budapest, May 1997.

16. Gesamtwirtschaftliche und unternehmerische Anpassungsfortschritte in Ostdeutschland (1997). - DIW, IWH, Istitut fuer Weltwirtschaft, Kiel. Kieler Diskussionsbeitraege.

17. Gesamtwirtschaftliche und unternehmerische Anpassungsfortschritte in Ostdeutschland: 13,14,15 Berichte (1995-1997). - DIW, IWH, Kieler Institut fuer Weltwirtschaft.

DIW Wochenberichte No. 27/28, 1995; No. 27, 1996; No. 3, 1997.

18. Gurkov (1996). Typology of Russian Enterprises Adaptation to New Economic Realities. - IIASA Working Papers.

19. Jakovlev, A. (1996). Industrial Enterprises in the Markets. New Marketing Relations, Status and Perspectives of Competition. - IIASA Working Papers.

20. Kaser, M. (1996). Post-Communist Privatization: Flaws in the Treuhand Model. -The University of Birmingham, Discussion Papers.

21. Kotler P., Singh R. Marketing Warfare in the 1980s. - Journal of Business Strategy, Winter 1981, pp. 30-41.

22. Lipsitz, I. (1996). The Dynamics of Russian Industrial Enterprises Financial Situation. - IIASA Working Papers.

23. Liuhto, K. (1997). The Transformation of the Organization Sector in Russia in the 1990s. Turku School of Economics and Business Administration. - Discussion Papers. Turku.

24. Ostdeutsche Unternehmen: Schwache Marktpraesenz im Ausland. (1997). Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft. - Koeln.

25. Russian Enterprises in Search of Survival Elixir (1996). - Expert Institute, Moscow.

26. Russian Industry: A Portrait in the Interior of Crisis (1995). - Expert Institute, Moscow.

27. STRATOS Group (1994). Strategic Orientation of Small European Businesses.

Aldershot.

28. Walker O., Boyd H., Larreche J.-C. Marketing Strategy. - Irwin, 1996.











2011 www.dissers.ru -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .