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Именно такой подход позволит скопировать знания преподавателя и предоставить доступ к ним каждому желающему. Более того, это позволит расширить границы обучения, причем не только с точки зрения количества обучаемых, но и с точки зрения временных и пространственных показателей: Обучение станет доступным везде и всегда.

Одним из условий перехода к умному электронному обучению является переход от книжного контента к активному. Лишь знания в электронном виде можно передавать с наибольшей эффективностью. При этом знания должны располагаться в едином репозитории, предполагающем наличие интеллектуальной системы поиска. И простого размещения контента в подобном репозитории недостаточно чтобы он стал активным. Все знаниевые объекты должны быть взаимосвязаны системой метаданных. В свою очередь, качество в репозитории должно постоянно контролироваться за счет внедрения таких систем, как e-metrics, и работать в единой связке с системами управления учебным процессом.

В соответствии с внедрением новой концепции поменяется роль и преподавателя, и студента. В прошлом студент был вынужден посещать занятия, записывать материал, единственным источником знания были лекции. Сегодня учащийся отлично владеет базовыми ИТ-технологиями, поисковыми инструментами Интернета, сам способен находить нужную информацию, у него нет необходимости в записи лекционного материала. Но он нуждается в путеводителе, и это - функция преподавателя. Он должен создавать новые знания, направлять студента на изучение необходимых знаний и обучать его с использованием уже привычных технологий. Только так можно обеспечить удовлетворенность студентов качеством образования.

Переход к Smart education потребует изменения схемы построения современной системы образования. В основе данной схемы должна лежать система мотивации, ведь именно мотивированный преподаватель будет создавать наиболее актуальные знания и активно участвовать в процессе развития дисциплины. Причем данный процесс должен носить не локальный, а распределенный характер, за счет чего к созданию новых знаний можно привлекать наибольшее число преподавателей, образующих своего рода сообщество.

Реализация данной концепции в рамках МЭСИ и международного консорциума «Электронный университет» позволяет совместно разрабатывать учебный материал для ведущих российских вузов, используя распределенную технологическую базу информационных центров дисциплин. В университете создана развитая технологическая база на базе MS SharePoint, проводятся регулярные программы повышения квалификации персонала и преподавателей, касающиеся развития навыков работы в информационных средах, ведется поддержка открытых сервисов для эффективной сетевой разработки контента распределенной кафедрой. В будущем развитие рассматриваемой концепции возможно за счет совместной разработки и использования общего репозитария учебного контента вузами - проект «электронного породнения» вузов на базе технологий Smart Education. Преимущества такого подхода очевидны: преподавателю вуза не приходится самостоятельно создавать учебный контент с нуля – используя общий репозитарий ему достаточно только актуализировать материал при работе с ним. Использование технологий Smart Education дает возможность объективно формировать модель компетенций предъявляемых со стороны работодателя к студенту-выпускнику вуза, во много раз упрощается создание специальных учебных программ, семинаров и мастер-классов, то есть, по сути, происходит персонификация образования.

Подводя итог по рассматриваемой в статье теме, необходимо ответить на вопрос: «Зачем нужно умное образование в ХХI веке» Умная система обучения означает гибкое обучение студента в интерактивной образовательной среде, позволяющее ему максимально быстро адаптироваться к окружающей среде, учиться в любое время и в любом месте на базе свободного доступа к контенту по всему миру.

Главная цель новой модели образования - создание среды, обеспечивающей максимально высокий уровень конкурентоспособного образования за счет развития у слушателя знаний и навыков, на которые предъявляет спрос современное информационное общество:

сотрудничество;

коммуникация;

социальная ответственность;

способность мыслить критически;

оперативное и качественное решение проблем.

Такая постановка задачи обусловливает необходимость использования лишь активного контента, построенного на принципе интеграции знаниевых объектов, систем управления знаниями и систем управления учебным процессом.

За счет развития подходов, методов и технологий электронного обучения происходит неминуемая трансформация образования в направлении Smart. В свою очередь люди, подготовленные в среде Smart education, быстрее адаптируются к условиям умной жизни и к условиям экономики основанной на знаниях.

ПАРАЛЛЕЛЬНАЯ СЕКЦИЯ I: ИКТ, педагогик а и ме тодо логии обучения ИКТ, педагогика и методологии обучения PARALLEL WORKING SESSION I ICT-Integrated Pedagogy and Learning Methodologies Education in the Knowledge & Creativity-based Society (Stoyan Denchev, Eugenia Kov atcheva an d Evgenia Sen dova) Stoyan Denchev1, Eugenia Kovatcheva1 and Evgenia SendovaState University of Library Studies and Information technologies (SULSIT), Bulgaria Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Science (BAS) dstoyan@hotmail.com, ekovatcheva@gmail.com If you want to build a ship, don't drum up people to collect wood and don't assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea.



Antoine de Saint-Exupery

Abstract

The paper deals with typical problems the education for the citizens of the knowledge & creativitybased society faces together with some positive practices in a Bulgarian setting. Based on their experience the authors claim that the e-skills should not be treated as a goal per se but rather as means of enhancing learner’s creativity and innovative spirit.

Introduction A typical challenge the contemporary education faces today is that the information and communication technologies (ICT) are often treated as an object of study rather than as means enriching the educational process in various aspects. The effective integration of ICT in a class setting requires that the learners are in the center and learn by doing, making, exploring. In order to teach in such a learner-oriented manner the very teachers should be educated how to express themselves by means of ICT. They should get convinced that it is important for their students not only to master the ICT skills of today, but also to get ready for solving complex problems of tomorrow, since the education is not a preparation for life; it is life itself (as the great educator John Dewey has put it). Thus two very important questions arise:

What kind of methodology do we have to apply so as to enhance the students’ creativity What kind of competences should the students acquire in order to become dignified citizens of the knowledge & creativity-based society The way the computers have been used has undergone a tremendous change – from simple calculations to processing of information in practically every area of life. To deal with the variety of ICT usage a new term has been coined – e-skills or digital skills [1]. There are several attempts to uniform the e-Skills (viz. the European e-Competence Framework (e-CF) – for the industry recognition; the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) – for the ordinary end-user, and the e-Business skills [2, 3].

Background To create a class culture in which the teachers and the students could work as a research team using the ICT in support of the inquiry-based learning has been the goal of a long-term research in Bulgaria dating from the early 80’s.

The first attempts are related with the Research Group on Education (RGE) – having carried out an educational experiment launched by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Education in 1979 [4, 5]. It comprised 29 pilot schools (2 % of the Bulgarian K-12 schools) and its main goal was to develop a new curriculum designed to make the use of computers one of its natural components. The guiding principles of RGE were learning by doing, guided discovery, and integrated school subjects.

An innovative idea of integrating the study of mathematics, natural languages (Bulgarian, Russian and English) and a computer language (Logo) was launched in fifth grade. Designed to show the intersection of language study with mathematical thinking in the context of informatics, the experimental textbooks Logo [6] and Language and Mathematics [7] included problems on translating from a natural to a formal language, algorithmic description of basic grammar rules and ways to extend the Logo turtle vocabulary in several languages. Applications of informatics notions were shown in mathematics, physics, music, graphical design, so that every student could choose a problem according to his/her interest. Since computation provides new tools for self-expression, the students dared to explore areas they had previously considered inaccessible. The specially designed computer microworlds provided convenient tools for the students to deal with new notions from a procedural rather than from a declarative point of view, i.e. in the style of how to rather than what is. This has already had an impact on the way we started teaching about mathematics, literature, art, and music.

The RGE experiment ran for 12 years. Spreading the positive experience of RGE on a broader scale at the time turned out to be very difficult for various reasons – both economic and political.

However, even with these isolated experiments the lessons learned were valuable – the learners’ creativity can be enhanced when provided with appropriate environments.

A negative tendency (noticed not only In Bulgaria but also in the most of Eastern Europe) was the slow decline of the educational system in the 90’s and the early 2000’s. A main factor was underfinancing but despite the problems, education in the region remains high in the mindset of the population and the performance results in various international competitions (i.e. International Olympiad in Informatics [8]) demonstrate competitiveness. A worrying trend however is that students increasingly prefer social sciences to technical disciplines.





Thus an intense work was needed at every level for integrating ICT in education including curriculum enrichment and development, text book writing, teacher training, and conceptualization of national and international policy towards a vision of ICT as a creative factor in advancing education.

Some Initiatives by the policy makers The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science (MEYS) launched several competitions for students dealing with the development of students’ e-skills. Last year the competitions were:

the Olympiad in IT – in 5 directions in two groups o between 12 – 15 years old – Multimedia and Web Design o between 15 – 19 years old – Multimedia Applications, Internet Applications and Application Software autumn and spring competitions in Internet and Multimedia Applications in Computer Networks Following the requirements of MEYS a novel ICT curriculum was developed for 5th to 11th grade in the Bulgarian schools as a core subject. Three crucial questions were addressed: where, how and why should the ICT be used. Even if the teachers theoretically know the advantages of the active learning they do not have sufficient experience letting them to apply this knowledge. Appropriate strategies and methodologies are needed. In next section we present the I*Teach methodology which proved to be very promising in this respect.

The I*Teach (Innovative teacher) project A specific I*Teach methodologywas developed in the frames of the Leonardo da Vinci Innovative teacherproject (2004-2005) [9] in which the notion of ICT-enhanced skills has been defined as a synergy between the technical and the soft skills – transferable skills in the knowledge & creativitybased society. The I*Teach methodology has been proposed based on active learning methods – the student is in the center of the learning process, the teacher is a guide and a partner in a project work based on didactic scenarios encouraging the creative thinking of students.

The I*Teach methodology has been implemented in a set of ICT textbooks and teacher’s handbooks for the junior high-school so as to allow teachers and students to enhance the underlying ideas in their field of interest. Typical for the structure of textbooks [10] is that there is a common thread linking: the tasks in a lesson; the lessons in a common ICT theme; the ICT themes in the whole textbook. An important feature of the lessons’ structure is that they start with a challenge – a creative problem motivating the introduction of new knowledge and skills. The final book of the series is developed as a challenge itself with the theme of coding, which passes as a red thread through the whole content. Each lesson deals with ideas and tools for solving problems considered as milestones towards a final goal (Figure 1).

Figure 1. A schematic presentation of typical I*Teach scenario The textbooks are designed so as to foster the creativity of both teachers and students. In the case of the teachers, they are encouraged (in the handbooks and during the training courses) to develop variations of the project theme taking into account their own expertise and students’ interests. As for the students, their creativity is stimulated by offering them a freedom of choice: i) of a path towards a specific milestone; ii) of a tool representing their ideas and iii) of a manner of presentation of the results. The two aspects of the project work, viz. generation of creative ideas and their implementation in a sharable product, lead to the innovativeness – important characteristics of the creativity based society.

Universities The universities are places where the ICT are applied and develop. They are used in different areas from observing the existing objects and processes to the platforms for simulations of new.

The study at the State University of Library Studies and Information Technologies (SULSIT) is oriented to the library studies, cultural heritage and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The first two areas are enhanced by the third. The synergy of discipline at the SULSIT is an important part of the curriculum. For example there are Bachelor programmes in Library and information management, Information brokerage, The IT in Low. These programmes are developed in Master of Science programmes as Library and information technologies, Cultural heritage in the Information Society, Digitalisation and digital libraries, IT and media.

This synergy of discipline in the SULSIT is a foundation for the new UNESCO chair ICT in library studies, cultural heritage and education established in 2012. The principal objectives of the proposed Chair are to provide education and training of students in ICT in Library Studies, Education and Cultural Heritage at different educational levels - BSc, MSc, PhD as well as the adults (librarians, school and university teachers, professionals from cultural institutions, heritage conservation professionals) by providing them variety of innovative interdisciplinary educational lifelong learning programs.

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