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( )......................................................................................................................... - ( )............................................................. Science and Mathematics Teachers Professional Development for ICT: Experiences from Latvia (Dace Namsone)........................................................................................................... ( )................................................................................................................................................. - : ( )...................................................................................................................... The challenges of preparing pre-service teachers to embrace a digital pedagogy (Shaun Nykvist).................................................................................................................................... - (Shaun Nykvist)........................................................................................................................ The System for Independent Certification in Informatization Sphere (Alexey Skuratov)....... " " ( )................................................................................................................................................. ( )................................................................................................................................................. ICT CFT ( ).............................................. PLENARY SESSION Innovative Learning and Teaching: Insights from recent OECD work (Dav id Istance) David Istance Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD David.ISTANCE@oecd.org Why innovation Why learning Some use achievement measures such as those generated by the PISA surveys to argue to do the conventional things in education somewhat better (room for improvement). But, those same indicators may just as convincingly be used to argue that we need more innovation in education rather than fall back on the tried and tested when nearly 20% of 15-year-olds failed to reach level in reading across OECD countries, and many more than that in some.

The innovation imperative stems at least as much from the more demanding agendas that now face educators as from the shortcomings of existing models. We have higher expectations that education, learning, skills and expertise will provide the basis for coping with the pressures of our rapidlychanging global economy and society. We need to innovate to keep up. At the same time, young people are themselves part of the rapid change the New Millennium Learners as referred to in another CERI project (NML) recently completed, surrounded by digital media and interacting with each other in different ways from generations past. Some of the main conclusions from NML will help introduce this keynote.

Why learning The epithets knowledge societies and knowledge economies risk to be slogans but insofar as they refer to a profound shift in 21st global societies, learning becomes central - knowledge is not knowledge unless it has been acquired. Second, continual education reforms often result in disappointingly small change. We can suggest that this is because too much of the reform endeavour is about changing structures and system variables rather than the actual learning and teaching taking place - to make a significant difference means to focus more directly on teaching and learning itself. Third, the advances in, and attention to, measuring learning outcomes (such as with PISA), do not tell us about how to actually change outcomes: that requires a focus on learning environments.

Innovative Learning Environments (ILE) The OECDs Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) through the Innovative Learning Environments (ILE) project is analysing how young people learn and under which conditions and dynamics they might learn better. To date, around 25 systems and organisations have been active in ILE, covering national or regional/provincial bodies, international networks, and foundations.

The three strands of ILE are: i) Learning Research, ii) Innovative Cases, and iii) Implementation and Change. These organise the project but they are much more than this. The design of ILE reflects the belief that a critical starting point to consider innovative change in the organisation of learning is the close understanding of learning itself. The next main component in the project design involves immersion in what practitioners and innovators have actually been working with around the world in their own different innovative learning environments the Innovative Cases and to hold them up against the learning principles developed out of The Nature of Learning. Having developed a framework of research-based principles about what learning environments should be striving towards, and having identified a wealth of inspiring learning innovations and the dynamics that help explain how they succeed, this has then established a very substantial foundation to consider more widespread change strategies towards innovative learning - the third strand of ILE.



To date, there are results from the first two strands learning research and innovative cases and these will form the core of the keynote.

Learning Research The ILE book The Nature of Learning (Dumont et al, 2010), aims to build bridges between research and practice thereby using research to inspire practice. Leading researchers from Europe and North America were invited to take different perspectives on learning, summarising large bodies of research and identifying their significance for the design of learning environments, so as to be relevant to educational leaders, teachers and policy-makers. The transversal conclusions, recasting the evidence reviewed in the different chapters more holistically, are synthesised in the form of learning principles. In summary, these state that in order to be most effective, environments should meet all the following:

Make learning central, encourage engagement, and be where learners come to understand themselves as learners.

Ensure that learning is social and often collaborative.

Be highly attuned to learners motivations and the importance of emotions.

Be acutely sensitive to individual differences including in prior knowledge.

Be demanding for each learner but without excessive overload.

Use assessments consistent with its aims, with strong emphasis on formative feedback.

Promote horizontal connectedness across activities and subjects, in- and out-of-school.

Technology permeates these principles but is not for ILE a separate principle. For example, it may encourage engagement, collaboration and motivation among young learners; technology permits individual differentiation and underpins formative assessment; it allows for all kinds of connectedness across time, place and subject.

Innovative Cases The basic pool of innovative cases in the ILE project is the Universe were brought together in common format from the 25 participating systems/organisations, with a few also gathered from other sources. We were not understanding innovation to reside in a small number of specific practices that could be defined in advance and searched for internationally: any particular educational practices had to be seen in their whole context. From within the existing Universe, cases were identified for more in-depth case study research analysis and added an important dimension of rigour and detail, with different methodology and drawing in researchers rather than relying on self-report.

The ILE framework In the new analysis of the innovative cases, we have elaborated the concept of learning environment as bringing together three components or circles. These may describe any such environment; the new report also specifies the terms in which such components become innovative, powerful and effective:

The Pedagogical Core: these are the elements and relationship at the heart of each learning environment. We understand these are four core elements: learners (who), teachers (with whom), content (what), and resources (with what), with four organisational relationships connecting these elements: i) how learners are grouped, ii) how teachers are grouped, iii) how learning is scheduled and timed, and iv) pedagogies and assessment practices. The learning environments of particular interest to us are innovating different elements or relationships within this core.

The Learning and Leadership Cycle: As an organisational concept that involves agency and outcomes, the learning environment cannot only be understood as its pedagogic core. How the environment is shaped over time depends critically on the capacity for learning leadership as is the capacity to digest and act upon the information about the learning taking place. Together, this might also be described as the design/formative organisation/redesign cycle.

The Partnership Circle: Traditionally, schools have tended to be closed but the contemporary learning environment will instead have well-developed connections with other partners - families and communities; partnerships with business, cultural institutions and/or higher education; and connections with other schools and other learning environments through networks.

21st century effective: The Nature of Learning principles are an integral part of the ILE framework; they provide the criteria against which to assess whether the innovation, leadership and reorganisation have changed practices in line with the lessons of learning research.

The cases in the ILE project are about innovation because of their readiness to change and rethink practices on an on-going basis. But they may also be described as powerful because they have organisational leadership and capacity, strongly focused on the core business of learning. They may be described as effective because they realise The Nature of Learning principles. No single term sums this up entirely. So, a contemporary learning environment should be:





Innovating the pedagogical core Engaging the Design/Formative Organisation/Redesign Cycle Widening connections and capacity through partnership Promoting 21st century effectiveness.

The keynote will present this framework with concrete examples taken from the case studies by way of illustration. Again, technology permeates this framework. Those who innovate the pedagogical core may use technology to rethink who the learner and the teacher are, and the nature of learning resources; they may use it to try new pedagogies or to group learners in different ways, or to reschedule the learning. It can be an integral part of learning environments as formative organisations, and for making the connections in the wider partnership circle. There is no single technology effect or practice, and ILE prefers to see it as an integral part of the learning arrangements rather than as something apart.

Dumont, H., D. Istance, and F. Benavides (eds.) (2010), The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice, Paris: OECD Publishing.

Teaching as a Design Science: Enabling Teachers to be Innovators in Learning Technology ( Dia na L aur illa rd) Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab, Institute of Education, United Kingdom D.Laurillard@ioe.ac.uk From a recent UNESCO survey of national e-learning policies it was possible to discern a common overall aim that can be expressed as being: to optimise the use of ICT in order to improve the quality, effectiveness, and accessibility of education in all sectors for the benefit of individuals and society.

This general aim is achieved in different ways in different countries. Policies depend on the stage a country has reached in the long process of developing an educational system that can respond to the opportunities afforded by digital technologies. However, there are many features that are common to all. There is always the need to develop an adequate IT infrastructure for education. There is always an expectation that access to free digital tools and resources via the web will benefit education, and that institutions should make use of these to update and enhance their teaching.

There is usually a focus on helping schools to innovate, given that HE often leads the way because it is able to invest in innovation.

Most governments influence the nature of the school curriculum and expect ICT to be included as a set of digital literacy skills, and as a means of studying or exploring every area of the curriculum.

The more interesting curriculum issue is the realisation that 21st century economies depend on IT innovation, and it is important for schools to lay the foundations for a workforce who not only use digital resources and applications but also create them in all walks of life. For this reason it is now more common to find school curriculum plans that include a version of computer science, even at primary level, and a focus on attracting more students to these subjects right through to HE. No curriculum area is spared because ICT has penetrated every discipline and workplace.

These are exciting developments, but they generate a further important requirement: that the teaching community in all sectors primary, secondary, further education, work-based learning, and HE - should develop the capability to use learning technologies effectively.

Teacher development policies focus primarily on equipping teachers with basic ICT literacy, although some countries also want teachers to be able to integrate ICT into their pedagogy themselves, rather than rely on directives or pre-designed resources from others. The digital resources available on the web Open Educational Resources (OERs) - are undoubtedly valuable for education, but are rarely developed with the local curriculum in mind, and are not easy to customise. It is therefore very difficult for teachers to find and match web-based resources for their courses and their students. Teachers need the skill to be able to work around these resources and integrate them with other materials, resources and digital tools and environments they are using, taking full responsibility for their own pedagogy.

In policies that recognise the importance of teacher development there is an intention to provide a deeper understanding of what ICT can do in education. They want teachers to have the knowledge building and sharing systems that will make them more knowledgeable consumers, and more skilled at making the best of available tools and resources.

One approach is to support teacher collaboration as a way of fostering the optimal use of ICT. This is a welcome approach given the complexity of what they have to develop. The curriculum for initial teacher training now often incorporates reference to ICT literacy, and where there is an emphasis on the importance of ICT in all curriculum subjects there is naturally a focus on this in the training. However, the teacher-training curriculum for schools and further education is not typically developed or taught by people whose main expertise lies in ICT-related pedagogies, because there has been so little time for such experts to develop. Moreover, teacher training is less common in HE, and the teaching community more often relies on specialist staff to support their use of ICT.

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