WWW.DISSERS.RU

БЕСПЛАТНАЯ ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА

   Добро пожаловать!


Pages:     || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 13 |
MODERN ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION TSTU Publishing House Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Тамбовский государственный технический университет СОВРЕМЕННАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРА И СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО Учебное пособие по английскому языку Тамбов Издательство ТГТУ 2004 УДК 802.0(076) ББК Ш13(Ан)я923 С56 Рецензент кандидат педагогических наук И.Р. Максимова Авторы-составители:

Е.В. Рябцева, А.А. Гвоздева, Л.В. Михеева, Л.П. Циленко С56 Современная архитектура и строительство: Учеб.

пособие по английскому языку / Авторы-сост.: Е.В.

Рябцева, А.А. Гвоздева, Л.В. Михеева, Л.П. Циленко. Тамбов: Изд-во Тамб. гос. техн. ун-та, 2004. 96 с.

Данное пособие предназначено для обучения различным видам чтения профессиональных текстов, владение которыми необходимо будущим специалистам, а также формирования устной речи, письма, переводческих навыков. Эффективное практическое овладение языком обеспечивается системой языковых упражнений, стимулирующих интерес студентов и их творческую активность.

УДК 802.0(076) ББК Ш13(Ан)я923 ISBN 5-8265-0305-Х © Тамбовский государственный технический университет (ТГТУ), 2004 © Рябцева Е.В., Гвоздева А.А., Михеева Л.В., Циленко Л.П., 2004 Учебное издание СОВРЕМЕННАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРА И СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО Учебное пособие по английскому языку Авторы-составители:

РЯБЦЕВА Елена Викторовна, ГВОЗДЕВА Анна Анатольевна, МИХЕЕВА Лариса Викторовна, ЦИЛЕНКО Любовь Петровна Редактор М.А. Евсейчева Компьютерное макетирование А.И. Евсейчев Подписано в печать 20.08.04 Формат 6084/16. Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная.

Гарнитура Times New Roman. Объем: 5,58 усл. печ. л., 6,00 уч.-изд. л.

Тираж 100 экз. С.578М Издательско-полиграфический центр Тамбовского государственного технического университета 392000, г. Тамбов, ул. Советская, д. 106, к. 14 CONTENTS UNIT 1. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS...........

.........

Lesson 1. Concrete – a Yearning for the Monolithic........

Lesson 2. High – Performance Concrete.........

........

Lesson 3. High – Strength Concrete............

.........

UNIT 2. BUSINESS DESIGN.....................

.........

Lesson 1. Industrial Building Typology..........

........

Lesson 2. Industrial Building..................

...........

Lesson 3. The Optimization of the Load-Bearing Structure...

UNIT 3. SCHOOL DESIGN.......................

.........

Lesson 1. Diversity and Democracy – 50 years of School Design.............................

.................

Lesson 2. Schools are a Hobbyhorse of Mine – an Interview with Hurman Herzberger.............

................

Lesson 3. Education and Construction – a Typol- ogy of School-Building......................

..............

UNIT 4. COLOUR AND ARCHITECTURE..........

.........

Lesson 1. Rendered Facades, but with What Finish Coloured, Painted or Coated.................

............

Lesson 2. Advertising Agency in Stuttgart School Building in Zurich..........................

..................

Lesson 3. Colour and Architecture..............

........

GRAMMAR REFERENCE......................

.........

FINAL GRAMMAR TEST......................

..........

UNIT CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS Lesson Concrete – a Yearning for the Monolithic Pre-reading Discussion 1. What is a construction 2. Concrete has become an important construction material, hasn’t it 3. What do you think about the construction architecture of the 19th and 20th centuries 4. How can you explain the phrase “a monolithic construction” 5. Does good knowledge of drawing help to create perfect buildings Monolithic buildings radiate a sense of strength. The pervasiveness of a single material, in conjunction with only a few restrained details, creates an agreeable impression of archaic simplicity in our modern society. If one seeks to achieve a unified design for the structure, facade, paving and other ancillary elements of a building in temperate climatic zones, the versatility of concrete makes it the ideal material. Many different surface treatments are possible for the design of facades. In the Swiss embassy in Berlin, Diener sought to achieve a monolithic effect by avoiding all trace of working joints. The walls were concreted in a continuous process over a period of 26 hours.

Another method of circumventing the constraints of joints can be seen in an office building in Munich by MVRDV, where a series of U-shaped precast concrete elements were offset to each other from storey to storey to create a series of projections and recesses. Sometimes the pattern of formwork ties may be exploited to lend the surface a certain structure. In the Scholler Bank in Vienna, however, Jabornegg and Palffy used an elaborate expanding shuttering technique to avoid precisely this effect. The monolithic outward appearance of a concrete building often results in internal complexity, especially in the building physics. An adequate solution can normally be achieved only through the creation of thermally separated inner and outer skins, in which case, care must be taken to avoid cracking caused by extremes of temperature. In the 16-meter-high exposed concrete facade to the Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich, which was executed without joints, flexible anchors were inserted between the two skins, and the external wall was prestressed. Monolithic structures may also be differentiated and given an individual character through the use of color. In the housing group on the Zurichberg by Gigon/Guyer, mineral pigments were applied to the surface of the concrete to create a matt, "pollen-like" texture. With its red-brown coloration, the guesthouse by Auer and Weber in Chile merges into the desert surroundings to become a monolithic relief in the landscape.



Different surface qualities may also be desired internally and externally. The black memorial structure in Sachsenhausen by Schneider/Schumacher seems dematerialized externally by reflections of the surroundings in the long shiny walls. The rays of light entering through the glazed roof strips, however, highlight the roughtextured natural grey face of the internal skin, thereby augmenting the massive effect of the interior.

The various forms of surface treatment that are possible with concrete also allow the simulation of naturally monolithic materials. Rem Koolhaas, for example, used the texture of traditional Japanese fortifications as a kind of collage in his housing development in Fukuoka.

With its 50 cm external walls, the house in Flasch by Andrea Deplazes is truly monolithic. To achieve the necessary thermal insulation, a special type of expanded concrete was developed, foamed to form hollow pores in the material. Steel reinforcement was replaced with polypropylene fibers. The use of sawn vertical boarded formwork reduced the danger of pockets and defects. The outer surface was treated with a water-repellent coating. The building is certainly experimental, but it also marks a step back to the original qualities of simple monolithic forms of construction, which hold a promise for the future.

Vocabulary List – monolithic – монолитный – archaic – архаический, устарелый – paving – мостовая, дорожное покрытие – ancillary – дополнительный, вспомогательный – versatility – эксплуатационная гибкость, многосторонность – a surface – поверхность – to achieve – достигать, добиваться – precast – заводского изготовления, сборного типа – a storey – этаж, ярус – a projection – выступ, выдающаяся часть – a recess – углубление, ниша – outward appearance – внешний вид – internal complexity – внутренняя комплексность – to crack – давать трещину, трескаться – a joint – соединение – an anchor – крепеж – a mineral pigment – минеральный краситель – to augment – увеличивать – a water – repellent coating – водоотталкивающее покрытие Answer the following questions.

1. Why is concrete an ideal material for building 2. How could Diener achieve a monolithic effect 3. What can you say about the method of circumventing the constraints of joints in an office building in Munich 4. May the use of color give an individual character to monolithic structures 5. How does light affect monolithic constructions Find the English equivalents in the text.

Создавать приятное впечатление; ощущение силы; умеренный климатический пояс; обработка поверхности; достигать эффекта монолитности; непрерывный процесс; возмещать; придавать поверхности определенную форму; внутренний и наружный слои; перепад температуры; вставлять; напыление; вливаться; луч света; имитация естественных монолитных материалов; расширяющийся цемент; воздушное пространство.

Give synonyms.

A unified design; an ancillary element; versatility; to achieve; a storey; a tie; to exploit; a technique; an adequate solution; to insert; simulation; to reduce.

True or false 1. Concrete is a collapse for the monolithic.

2. If you want to have a unified design for the structure the versatility of concrete makes it the ideal material.

3. The use of color does not affect the monolithic structures.

4. Different forms of surface allow the simulation of naturally monolithic materials.

5. The rays of light entering through the glazed roof strips highlight the rough-textured natural grey face of the internal skin, thereby augmenting the massive effect of the interior.

Определенный и неопределенный артикли.

Множественное число существительных (See Grammar Reference) Put in -a or -an where it is necessary.

1. This is … easy text.

2. That is … good idea.

3. These are … low tables.

4. This … table is low.

5. This is … low table.

6. … roses are beautiful flowers.

7. This rose is … beautiful flower.

8. … London and … Rome are big cities.

9. … Naples is … big city, too.

10. I like … sugar in my … tea.

11. The … tea is hot.

12. Tea is … hot drink.

Put in -a, -an or -the where it is necessary.

1. Come to... blackboard and write... Exercise 5.

2. You have... mistake in... word "correspondence".

3. I heard... knock at... door and went to open it.

4. John saw... small girl entering... house where he lived.

5. He is still... young man, and we hope he'll become... good pianist.

6. I don't like... milk with my tea.

7. We bought... oranges and... butter.





8. Are... rooms in your flat tidy 9. They are going to build... new house;... house they've been living in is too small for... family of six.

10. There is... love in her eyes.

11. I like... jam on... piece of bread.

12. I prefer... book of... good poetry to... detective novel.

13. Can you give me... piece of... advice 14. I worked as... shop-assistant in... local supermarket.

15.... young woman dressed in... red entered... room where... whole company gathered.

16.... London is on... Thames.

17..... Mexico is south of... United States of America.

18.... Urals separate... Europe from... Asia.

19.... Mississippi is... longest river in... world.

20. What is... capital of... Spain Put the nouns into the plural form.

Month, eye, ear, brother, spoonful, deer, army, Frenchman, chimney, machine, top, hill, bush, man, son, factory, memorandum, basis, boy, roof, chief, box, tooth, phenomenon, handful, airman, river, lake, name, place, watch, bridge, armchair, formula, ship, mistake, farm, hat, bank, rifle, gun, mine.

Lesson High – Performance Concrete Pre-reading Discussion 1. Which construction materials can you name 2. How can you describe concrete in your own words 3. Is it possible to consider concrete to be the main construction material 4. For what purpose do usually people use concrete 5. In designing a building the choice of construction materials is of vital importance, isn’t it Concrete technology has undergone a constant process of development over the past 50 years. Today, it provides planning engineers and architects with a broad range of possibilities in terms of both structural and formal design. In office construction, for example, high-strength concrete offers scope for saving space by reducing the dimensions of the load-bearing structure and thereby increasing the rentable floor area. This type of concrete also allows the construction of building elements that have a great resistance to weathering, that are durable and that, in certain circumstances, can protect the environment against harmful liquids.

High-strength concrete has a long tradition. With extremely low water/cement ratios (below 0.4) and with the addition of pozzolanic, highly-reactive aggregates such as powdered silica or metakaolin, a compression strength of up to 150 N/mm2 can be achieved (compared with a strength of 20-50 N/mm2 for normal concrete).

Assuming the same amount of reinforcement and the use of concrete C70/85, the cross-section could be reduced by 30 per cent. In many situations, a reduction in the amount of reinforcement may be required instead, in order to facilitate the execution of the work. In most cases, however, a solution will be sought between these two extremes.

Only by using this type of concrete was it possible to keep the thickness of the walls on the lower floors within reasonable limits. With concrete of standard strength, a wall thickness of about 2 m with a very large amount of reinforcement would have been necessary. It was possible to reduce the thickness to roughly 1.40 m and to use only a moderate amount of reinforcement. Nevertheless, for walls of this thickness, it is necessary to reduce the cement content to well below normal levels and to add pulverized fly ash to the mix. Preliminary trials allowed the appropriate combination of cement and fly ash to be determined in order to avoid deleterious cracking through the discharge of setting heat. In Germany, solutions of this kind require a special certification of the relevant state planning authorities. Even with the use of an optimum mix of concrete, however, newly constructed concrete elements still need appropriate curing subsequently to prevent heat escaping too quickly.

In view of the very low water/cement ratio and the addition of pozzolanic additives, high-strength concrete is not only strong, but also dense. Both properties can be exploited in areas like bridge building, where highly durable concrete is required to ensure long life as well as slender cross-sectional dimensions. Where harmful liquids are used in buildings such as clinics, hospitals or chemical laboratories, additional measures will be necessary to protect the ground and groundwater from contamination. Dense concrete mixes have proved particularly suitable in such cases.

The advantages of high-density concrete slabs include their greatly reduced permeability in comparison with normal concrete, and their higher tensile strength. In slabs of smaller area (up to a maximum dimension of 15 m), their greater strength means that they are not subject to cracking. Cracks in construction elements are especially critical in buildings where water-polluting organic liquids are used. With the use of high-density concrete, it is often possible to do without an additional protective coating.

As far as cementicious building materials are concerned, new developments have taken place in recent years that will considerably extend the use of concrete in this area. This applies in particular to high-strength concretes with compressive strengths of up to 800 N/mm2 (in comparison with standard applications of about 300 N/mm2). Considerable reductions in the cross-sections of reinforced and prestressed concrete members can be achieved with this type of concrete. Slender elements also mean a lower overall weight, as well as a more sustainable form of construction through the conservation of resources.

Pages:     || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 13 |










© 2011 www.dissers.ru - «Бесплатная электронная библиотека»

Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.