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1 a = 1 024 a 210 (oa), 1 Ma = 1 048 576 a 220 (eaa), 1 a = 1 073 741 824 a 230 (oa), 1 Ta = 1 099 511 627 776 a 240 (epaa).

B pox cex aax opa acaec e cox oo (ce). Coco pecae ce ocpeco cox ao (p) aaec cceo cce. paa ac ec a ca cceax cce, coyex poo ceo exe, opee apeece oco pox BM.

Paa a ocox a cce cce: eooe ooe. Heooe cce cce xapaepyc e, o aee ca, paaeoe cooyoc p, opeeec oo oypae pox coo. pepo eooo cce ec pca ccea cce. Haoee pacpocpaee oy ooe cce cce, oopx aee o p opeeec e oo oypae ee coo, o ecoooee oe, oopoe oa aae ce. p o o ocoae ooo cce cce q oaec oeco pax p, coyex pecae ca.

CPE OOHHX CCTEM PAAT OHOPOHE CMEAHHE CCTEM CCEH. B OHOPOHX CCTEMAX OECTBO OCTMX P BCEX O (PAPOB) CA OHAOBO. OHOPOHO OOHHO CCTEMO BETC OEPHTA ECTHA CCTEMA CCEH (Q = 10), COA AC CE ECT P OT O 9.

pepo ceao cce cce oe cy ccea ocea pee, e papax cey y coyec o 60 paa, papax aco 24 paa ..

oe eceoe co A, acaoe oopoo ooo ccee cce a A = anan- an- a a a- a- a-m oe pecaeo e cy ceeoo pa A = anqn + an- qn- + + a q + a q + a- q- + + a-mq-m (1) e q ocoae cce cce (q > = 2, eoe ooeoe co); ai p cce cce c ocoae q(ai = 0, 1, 2,..., q 1); i oep (ec) o (papa) ca. Moe peaoao ecoeoe oeco pax cce cce.

B cex aax ocoo coyc oopoe ooe cce. poe eco, BM axo pooe peee cce c ocoae q, c cee ca 2, a eo: oa, ocepa ecaaepa cce cce.

ecmua cucmea cuceu. B cooec c (1) o p ce opeee cee ca c ocoae 10, a oopoe a pa yoaec. Hanpuep, co 534,79 oo peca a 534,79 = 5,102+3,101+4,100+7,10-1+9,10-2.

B oo pape oe pecaeo ec p: o 0 o 9. paee e cape pe papa ( pe 9) oaae epeoc e cap pap, .e. ac ca 10 ox ce peyc a oee papo. co N = qn (e q ocoae cce; n eoe ooeoe co) pecaec e e cape pape c ocey n y. Hapep, N = 104 = 10 000. o pao pacpocpaec a ce oopoe ooe cce cce.

oua cucmea cuceu. Ocoae cce q = 2.

ac ce coyc e p: 0 1 (a. 1) 1 Cooece eco oo cce cce ece 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 oe 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 Cape po papa ec 1. ooy oo ccee 1 + 1 = 10, a a paee e cape pe aoo papa ae epeoc e cap pap.

puep apeecx ec oo ccee cce:

Coee Bae oee 0 + 0 = 0 0 0 = 0 0 0 = 0 + 1 = 1 1 0 = 1 0 1 = 1 + 0 = 1 1 -1 = 0 1 0 = 1 + 1 = 10 10 1 = 1 1 1 = p oe apeecx ec oo ccee cce ceye o, o ea ec cape aae po ooo papa. Bo aao pape ae y e, ceye a ey capeo aaeo papa, peyae eo ae pape opayc e e, oa a.

OEPA MHO EH CBOTC MHOOPATHOM CO EH CB. P BOHEH EEH COTC PABA MHO EH BTAH.

HAPMEP:

Coee Bae oee eee 1011001 100111 11011 + 11101 1001 1110110 11110 11011 11011 11110011 Bocepua cucmea cuceu. Ocoae cce q = 8. ac ce coyec oce p o 0 o 7. B cy oo, o ocoae ocepo cce ec pee cee ca 2, pecae ooo ocepoo papa peyec p aax ox papa (paa). epeo ce oo cce ce ocepy aoopo ocyecec o paa. Paee ooo ca a pa ocyecec eo pao o ao, oee ey ac ca o poo, anpuep:

1 1010 1012 = 3258 0,11012 = 0,648, 1 100 101 011,111 012 =1453,728, 247,568 =10 100 111,101 112.

Ec pae pa oyac eo, o o ooc y.

ecmaamupua cucmea cuceu. Ocoae cce q = 24 = 16. ac ce coyec ecaa p. x epe ec ece p o 0 o 9. B aece ooex p coyc aae ace y A, B, C, D, E F. epeo ce oo cce ecaapy opao ocyecec o epaa aaoo oo-ocepoy epeoy anpuep:

3FA16 = 0011 1111 10102, 10 0110 1101,1112 = 26D, E16.

Heoe epa ooc y.

B pe cyae oee oao ac yoee ooac e o ec, a ecaap pecaee ce.

O E C E OC HO B H O H PO BA H OM TEP A oua aya, yaa exy cye paccye. Pae o: aeaeca oa, opaa oa, aeeca oa.

opaa oua ca, yaa ocoeoc eoeecx cye paccye.

Mameamueca oua ca, yaa exy aeaec ox eop oaaec.

uaemueca oua oa, yaa aooepoc poecco, paaxc ppoe, oece oa.

oca o yoax, aapax popax cpec BM coyec aepa o (yea aepa), aaa o e coae.

Oc o e o a e p o yea aepa oeppye c oec epee, oope oy pa 2 ae: 1 (co) 0 (oo).

o e c e y oueco yue aopa f(x1... xn) aaec y, apye oopo oy pa oo 2 ae ca o. Oac opeee oeco y oea ac o ca oox apyeo. a oeca y oe aaa c oo a coc, eo ac oopo acac ooe ae apyeo, a pao cooecye ae y.

o c p o e e a c o c 1 He epc eee ae apyea a poooooe. pop, peay y y epop. O ee o xo o xo. Eo opaee a cxeax:

Bxo Bxo 0 1 (e o) 1 0 (e o) HE C aca Cxeoex a ! not 2 oecoe coee. pop, peay , aaec "ee "; a cxeax opaaec cey opao:

Bxo 1 Bxo 2 Bxo 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 C aca Aepa Cxeoex o a || or 3 o oecoe yoee. pop, peay o, aaec "ee "; a cxeax opaaec cey opao:

Bxo 1 Bxo 2 Bxo 0 0 & 0 1 1 0 1 1 C aca Aepa Cxeoex o a & && and Ha ocoe x pocex eeo coac coe epae cxe, oope axo pooe peee paoepoe.

a o a e p o B aepe o oc ceye ocoe ao, ooe poo oecee peopaoa oecx pae.

oyae ao (epeecee):

x x = x x x x = x x Accoae ao (coeaee):

x x x = x x x x x x = x x x cpye ao (pacpeeee):

x x x = x x x x cpyoc o ooceo , x x x = x x x x cpyoc ooceo o.

paa e Mopaa (eopea oceoc):

x x = x x x x = x x paa oepa c ocaa 0 1 (coca oca):

= = x = x x = x = x x = paa oepa epeeo c ee epce:

x x = x x = ao ooe:

x x x = x x x x = x ao cea =.

1 1 ao eoeoc (aoo):

x x = x x x = x ao ooo opa:

= ao poope: x x = 0.

ao caeo peeo: x x = p o e e o e c x p a e yc aa oeca y f x x x = x x x x x x x x x = pe e pacpeee ao oy:

= x x x x x x x = ao cea = x x x x = pacpeee ao = x x x x x = ao caeo peeo = x x x = coco oca = x x x oce ypoe, a pao, oyaec oa aex caa, oopx ee e oopc.

2 TEXHECE POPAMMHE CPECTBA PEAA HOPMAOHHX POECCOB A a pa oe o e c e e e ep co a o o o ep a yopoa oepa eoxoo a a oecee. o aapaoe oeceee (hardware) popaoe oeceee (software).

Paccop aapay ac epcoaoo oepa.

Oa coco :

1 poeccopa, oeo ypaee oepo;

2 aayp, ooe o co oep. o ycpoco oa;

3 Moopa, cyaeo opae eco paeco opa ycpoco oa;

4 Haoee (cooo) x ax co; aoee a ecx ax cax, ecepa.

poe oo, epcoa oepa oy oac: npumep ( oa paeco ecoo opa); (ycpoco, oeceaee o opa oep); caep (ycpoco ca paeco ecoo opa); cemeo aanmep (ae oooc o epcoa oep oay oay ce); cmpuep (ycpoco cpoo xpae ce opa, axoec a ecepe); paec ae ( oa oypx opae); nommep ( oa epee a yay).

pee o-cxey cceoo oa oepa, opaey a pc. 1.

Pc. 1 o-cxea cceoo oa O oepaa a; opoep aayp; AM aaep oopa; opoep ooex ycpoc; A aaep opo;

opoep cooo o p o e p a oo, o epcoa oep o paoa, eoxoo, o eo oepao a axoac popaa ae, ey pocxo oe. p paoe popa aco ae eoxo o opa o ooae o ee a pa. Tao oe aaec oo oo. eo ocyece ec a poeyox ea:

1 aoo eeo ycpoca eec epoa cxea, oopa ypae. Ee aa opoepo aaepo.

2 Bce opoep aaep aoecy c popoeccopo oepao a epe ccey acpa epea ax, oopy aa o. Ccea a ec aao coee popoeccopa, oepao a epax ycpoc (pc. 2). ec a axoc a aepco ae.

epepoe ycpoco a ax epa O popoeccop a apeca Pc. 2 a ax a apeca oea a c a ycpoca oa oa cya pae ooe : aoece popoeccopa c epep ycpoca e epe y ax, a apeca a pocxo p oo apeca.

a epcoaoo oepa IBM PC XT a 8-papo. ae pa IBM PC AT ea caap 16papo ISA. Bce IBM coece oep epea caap ISA. B 1987 . oac 32-x papa a IBM PS/2, oa aaac MCA. a a a ecoeca co caapo ISA. B 1989 oy oac oa 32-x papa a EISA, coeca c ISA. B acoee pe paaec oe oao , oae cpoece a ce ycao e ooeo . Ceac ca oyp caap PCI (papa). AGP-eo a paoae a acoe poeccopa.

e p a p o p o e c c o p o ooy aa popoeccopa oo coca pecaee o o, aoy accy oopyoa pae oep (a. 2).

Pap oeco ypex ox papo ec o aex aopo pooeoc popoeccopa.

mepec c cucmeo uo. oeco papo epeca c o ax e a eoc oea ax c e ycpoca. O papoc apecoo epeca apy ac aca oe apecyeo oepao a.

Tamoa acmoma. Heoxoa cxpoa pao ycpoc oepa. Be a copoc pao popoeccopa.

Apecau namu. oeco apecyeo a paec 2- cee papoc apeco .

O e p a a a a IBM PC coco : O(RAM) (ROM). RAM ocya a e, a ac. peec xpae oex ey oe popa coyex ax. Ha copeex epcoax oepax oo e eee 16 Mb RAM, ae epcoa oep co cpo ycapee. ISA eooo ycao oee 16 Mb a. Bao xapaepco oepao a ec pe op. a ea epec aoceyax ooaae a poeyo pee, epe oop popoeccop oe opac oepao a. (a. 2).

2 poeccop p Intel Moe Pap epec Taoa Apeca acoa, MHz a apec ae 8086 16 20 16 5, 8, 10 1M 8086 16 20 8 5, 8 1M 80 286 16 24 16 8, 10, 12 16M 80 386 DX 32 32 32 10, 20, 25, 33 4M 80 386 SX 32 24 16 25, 33, 50 16M 486 DX 32 32 32 16, 20, 25, 33 4M 486 SX 32 32 32 50, 66 4M 486 DX2 32 32 32 75, 100 4M 486 DX4 32 32 32 60, 66, 50, 100 4M Pentium 64 32 32 60... 200 4M Pentium Pro 64 32 32 150... 4M Pentium II 64 32 32 233... 450 4M Pentium III 64 32 32 450... 4M A M T , y oopx acoa oe 28 M, eoxoo oece cp ocy oepao a, o e pocaa popoeccop. oo oep oy ocaac cepx cpo a ooceo eooo oea (oo o 64 256 ), oopo xpac aoee aco coyee yac oepao a. a pacoaaec ey popoeccopo oepao a. p opae popoeccopa a c aaa pooc oc yx ax a.

Mo o p peaae oa a pa ecoo paeco opa. Moy paoa yx peax:

ecoo paeco.

Tecmo peu: pa oopa ycoo paaec a oee yac aoeca. ae ceo o 25 cpo o 80 coo. Ha ex oopax, aoy aoecy cooecye co e oa co e coa. Cpyypa aa apya coa peea a pc. 3. ec ae 4 a (0-3) opee e coa, pe 0-2 e, a 3 ecoc ea. Cape epe a (4-7) opee e oa: 4-6 e oa, a 7 pa epa.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Pc. 3 Cpyypa aa apya coa ocoy eo ce ee p ocox ea (pac, ee c), o opeee ea ooc p a:

000 ep e (010); 1000 eo-cep (810);

001 c e (110); 1001 po-c (910);

010 ee e (210); 1010 po-ee (1010);

011 oyo e (310); 1011 po-oyo (1110);

100 pac e (410); 1100 poo (1210);

101 oeo e (510); 1101 cpee (1310);

110 ope e (610); 1110 e (1410);

111 ceo-cep e (710); 1111 e (1510).

pauecu peu peaae oa a pa pao pcyo .. Hac ec oy e poo paep y. B paeco pee pa oopa coco oe cee, oop oe e.

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