М545 Методические рекомендации для подготовки к экзаМЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ мену по английскому языку (для студентов химического ДЛЯ ПОДГОТОВКИ К ЭКЗ АМЕНУ факультета) / Сост. Л.В. Жилина. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2004. – 36 с.
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗ ЫКУ ISBN 5-7779-0513-7 (для студентов химического факультета) Предназначено для более эффективной подготовки к экзамену по английскому языку.
Разделы пособия соответствуют заданиям экзаменационного билета (письменный перевод текста со словарем, реферирование текста, изложение предложенной темы). Включены правила чтения химических элементов и формул, а также тексты по наиболее сложным разделам грамматики (согласование времен, модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, времена – пассивный и активный залоги).
Для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов химического факультета.
Первый раздел соответствует первому вопросу экзаменацион- Translate the text with dictionary in written form (45 minutes).
ного билета и содержит текст (по сложности соответствующий эк- заменационному) для письменного перевода с использованием сло- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION варя. Talanta,Vol. 37, № 6, pp. 561–571, 1990 Второй раздел соответствует второму вопросу экзаменационThe results of rate measurements are summarized in Table1. In ного билета: перевод текста без словаря или реферирования текста both bromination and chlorination in all three solvents kMe/kH < 1( 07– (на выбор). Для облегчения выполнения этого задания помимо двух 09) is always observed. Thus it can be concluded that the reactions are текстов даются фразы, помогающие грамотно изложить содержание decelerated by methyl group. Although methyl connected to a sp 3 carbon статьи.
atom may have as an electron-withdrawing group in some cases, in haloТретий раздел соответствует третьему вопросу – изложение genations of alkenes methyl attached to a saturated carbon atom appears разговорной темы – и состоит из шести текстов с вопросами. Все to be electron-releasing. In the bromination of linear alkenes in methanol шесть текстов являются примерными разговорными темами, вклюand acetic acid, introduction of a methyl to an -carbon of the double ченными в экзамен.
bond always leads to an acceleration of the reaction so long as its steric Четвертый раздел помогает студентам научиться правильно effect is negligible. It cannot be expected that a methyl group is electronчитать химические формулы, встречающиеся в текстах, и этот наreleasing when it is connected to a sp3 carbon atom on an open chain and вык закрепляется в конце раздела при выполнении заданий.
becomes electron-withdrawing when the carbon atom is on a ring. Based Пятый раздел – приложение, в которое входят четыре теста, upon these considerations we concluded that the methyl group of 4охватывающие наиболее сложные разделы грамматического матеmethylcyclopentene is electron-releasing in the reaction, in accord with риала пройденного курса.
The observed deceleration by the methyl should be accounted for in terms of steric effect. In syn or anti addition to a cyclic olefinic compound, generally it is more difficult for the reagent to attack the more hindered side. For example, epoxidation of 4-methylcyclopentene gave 76% addition from the less hindered side and 24% from the more hindered side. It should be so in halogenation too. Thus the 4-methyl deactivates the reactions through steric effects. So long as the steric effect of the methyl is not cancelled by its electronic effect, the relative rate kMe/kH < 1. Nevertheless, it should be noted that steric effect of the 4methyl group is small, because (1) the methyl is not a very hindering group and is situated in a remote position to the reaction seat; (2) only one side of the cyclopentene ring can be hindered by the 4- methyl while the other side is free of this interaction; (3) the steric effect is considerable only when the substituent is in an axial position.
3 Phrases for rendering QUESTION II Вопросы, обсуждаемые в статье:
1. The paper (article) deals with some aspect of… (имеет дело с Task некоторыми аспектами) I. Read and translate the text without a dictionary (15 minutes). 2. The paper (article) considers the problem of… (рассматривает II. Rendering of the text (15 minutes). проблемы) 3. The paper (article) represents the basic theory… (представляет HOW MANY TYPES OF HYDROGEN основную теорию) ARE THERE ON EARTH 4. The paper (article) providers information on… (обеспечивает информацией) It was thought previously that there was only one hydrogen on 5. The paper (article) reviews the basic principles of… (делает обEarth, that with an atomic weight of one. Murphy and his colleagues disзор основных положений) covered a second hydrogen, twice as heavy. This was the hydrogen iso6. The paper (article) is concerned with… tope having the atomic weight two. Isotopes are varieties of atoms with 7. The paper (article) is devoted to… (посвящена) the same charge but different atomic weights. In other words, the nuclei 8. The subject … is… of isotopic atoms contain an equal number of protons, but different num9. The key-note (main idea) is… bers of neutrons. Isotopes are known for all the chemical elements: some of them exist in nature; others have been obtained artificially by means of Начало статьи:
1. The paper (article) begins with a short discussion on… The hydrogen isotope whose nucleus is a bare proton is called po2. The paper (article) deals firstly with the problem of… dium and its symbol is H. This is the only atomic nucleus, which con3. The first paragraph deals with… tains no neutrons at all (Another unique property of hydrogen!). Add a 4. First (as first, at the beginning) the author points out that (notes neutron to this single proton and the result is the nucleus of the heavy that, describes)… hydrogen isotope called deuterium (H2 or D2). Podium is far more abundant in nature than deuterium, constituting over 99 per cent of all the hyПереход к изложению следующей части статьи:
1. Then the author does on to the problem of… But there is a third variety of hydrogen, with two neutrons in its 2. The next (following) paragraph deals with (presents, discusses, nucleus; this is tritium (H3 or T3). It forms only to disappear again rather describes)… quickly. It is radioactive and decays into a helium isotope (helium-3).
3. After discussing… the author turns to… Tritium is a very rare element, its content in all the atmosphere of the 4. Next (further, then) the author tries to (indicates that, explains Earth is only 6 grams. There is only one atom of tritium in every 10 cubic that)… centimeters of air. Just recently still heavier isotopes of hydrogen H4 and 5. It must be emphasized that (should be noted that)… H5 have been obtained artificially, but they are unstable.
The fact of its having isotopes does not distinguish hydrogen among the chemical elements. What does distinguish it is that hydrogen isotopes differ noticeably in properties, primarily in physical properties.
Isotopes of the other elements are almost indiscriminable.
5 Конец изложения статьи: Task 1. The author concludes that (summarizes the)… I. Translate the text without a dictionary (15 minutes).
2. The author recommends to… 3. The author emphasizes (подчёркивает) (the fact that) (admits THE WORLD OF METAL AND ITS PARADOXES that)… 4. The author points out… (указывает) 1. Over eighty of the elements in the Periodic System are metals.
5. The author gives us some information about… On the whole, they resemble one another more than the non-metals. And 6. The final paragraph states (describes, ends with)… yet there is no end of surprises in the metal kingdom. For instance, what colors are the different metals Metallurgists divide all metals into ferВ последнем абзаце: rous and non-ferrous. The ferrous metals include iron and its alloys. All 1. The conclusion (заключение) is that the problem is… the rest are non-ferrous metals, except for the noble ones, their «Majes2. To sum up (to summarize, to conclude)… ties» Silver, Gold and Platinum and Co. This is a very crude division and even the metals themselves object strongly to such lack of discriminaПодводя итог (заканчивая): tion. Each metal actually has its own particular hue. Its dark, dull or sil1. Finally (in the end) the author admits (emphasizes) that… very base always has a definite tint. Scientists have become convinced of 2. We can make a conclusion that… this by studying metals in the very pure state. Many of them when left in 3. It is necessary (interesting) to note… the air become coated sooner or later with a very thin film of oxide which 4. Suffice it to say that… masks their true color. But the pure metals give a very wide range of col ors. The observant eye can discern metals with bluish, greenish-blue and Оценка статьи: greenish shades, with a reddish or yellowish play of colors, dark-grey 1. In my opinion (to my mind, I think)… like sea water on a cloudy autumn day, and shiny silvery ones which re2. This text might be interesting… flect solar rays like a mirror. The color of a metal depends on many fac3. The paper (article) proves… tors. Among others, it depends upon the method of its production.
4. The paper (article) is interesting of importance (of title impor- 2. If we compare metals by weight we can distinguish light, metance, not interesting). dium and heavy ones. These «weight classes» have their record holders.
5. The paper (article) is valuable (invaluable) (ценная Lithium, sodium and potassium do not sink in water, because they are (бесценная)). lighter than water. For example, the density of lithium is almost half that 6. The paper is up-to-date (out-of-date) (современная (устарев- of water, which equals unity. Were lithium not so active an element, if шая)). would be an excellent material for a great variety of purposes. Imagine a 7. The paper is useful (useless) (полезная (бесполезная)). ship or an automobile made entirely of lithium. Unfortunately, chemistry 8. This paper (article), to my mind, is a pretty concoction! bans this attractive idea.
9. The language … is rather simple (difficult). 3. The «heavy-weight champion» among the metals is osmium.
10. There are lots of (no, not many) special terms… One cubic centimeter of this noble metal weighs 22,6 grams. To balance one cube of osmium we would have to put on the other tray, say three cubes of copper, two cubes of lead or four cubes of yttrium. The «performance» of osmium’s closest neighbors, namely, platinum and iridium, is almost as high. The noble metals are also the heaviest metals.
7 4. The hardness of metals has become proverbial. If a man is always composed and cool-headed, we say he has «iron nerves». But in the QUESTION III world of metal the situation is different. Here iron is hardly a model of Speak on the topic.
hardness. The hardness champion is chromium which is just slightly inferior to diamond. By the way, paradoxical though it sounds, the hardest TOPIC chemical elements are not metals at all. At the top of the conventional hardness scale stands diamond (a from of carbon)and crystalline boron. I. Read and translate the text.
Iron should rather be classed as a soft metal; it is only half as hard as chromium. And as to the light-weights, the alkali metals, they are as soft STUDENTS STUDIES as wax. AT THE FACULTY OF CHEMISTRY I am a student of the Chemical department of Omsk State UniverII. Look through passage 2, 3, 4 and answer:
sity which was founded in 1974. The department of chemistry is one of 1. How can we classify metals according to their weight its natural departments.
2. What metals are lighter than water Apart from the main task of training skilled chemists it conducts 3. Are metals the hardest chemical elements research in important problems of modern chemistry. Its work in new 4. What is the density of water method of synthesis, in highly sensitive methods of analysis, its research in the basic properties of substances is of great theoretical and practical III. Give the information about:
significance. Investigations and studies are carried on in up-to-date 1. The color of metals the observant eye can discern;
chemical laboratories equipped with all the necessary devices and appa2. The «performance» of osmium’s closest neighbors.
There are three chairs of the chemical department of the University: Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Chair of Organic Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry and Petrochemistry.
The teaching staff of our faculty is highly qualified. Doctors of sciences and many candidates of sciences work there.
The academic year is divided into two terms. At the end of each term students have their credit tests and take their terminal exams. State scholarship is paid to the advanced students. At the end of the course of studies students are to submit a graduation paper and pass their final state examinations.
The full university course lasts 5 years. During this period of time the students take 3 years of general course followed 2 years of specialized training in some special fields of chemistry. The main aim of the first stage of the chemical program is to provide aboard and solid foundation for professional knowledge. The curriculum is rather wide and versatile.
9 The chemistry students study general education subjects, such as TOPIC philosophy, political economy, foreign languages and so on. The syllabus I. Read and translate this text.
also offers a wide range of special courses. Acquiring skills in research is the major goal of the final stage of the chemistry program.
MENDELEYEV From the very beginning many students start their research work under the supervision of highly qualified specialists. They make a deeper Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, the greatest Russian scientist, the investigation of the problems being studied, get used to a going collective father of the Periodic Table of Elements, was born in Tobolsk in 1834 in research and develop instruments and apparatus. the family of director of the town gymnasium. He received a secondary The student does research mainly for his graduation paper, which education at Tobolsk gymnasium. At the age of 16 he finished school and reflects the knowledge and practical skills, he has gained in his special went to Petersburg where he entered the Pedagogical Institute and gradufield. It is, as a rule, a small research project carried out by the student ated from it with gold medal in 1855.
under the guidance of a supervisor. Then the student submits his gradua- After graduation Mendeleyev worked as a teacher for two years, tion paper and defends it before an examination board. If he does this first in Simferopol and Odessa gymnasiums. In 1859 Mendeleyev rewith honors he may be recommended to take postgraduate course. ceived his Master’s Degree and went abroad on two-year scientific comAfter graduating from the university graduates may become teach- mission. In 1860 he took part in the World Chemical Congress in ers at school, research workers, or may help to control great industrial Karlsruhe, Germany.
processes, to develop new ones; we may also collaborate with medical When Mendeleyev returned to Russia he was elected professor of workers in the control of disease. A person who chooses chemistry as a the Petersburg University, where he carried on scientific and pedagogical profession does not thereby place narrow limitation on what he will do activities, for twenty years. His lectures on chemistry were always interwith his life. Chemists and chemical engineers are needed for many ac- esting and the students of that time listened to them with great interest tivities. and attention. Besides lectures Mendeleyev made a lot of experiments and later analyzed them.
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