УДК 20 Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации ББК 81.2Англ.я73 Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского F97 Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ Рецензент канд. филолог. наук В.Г. Болотюк F97 Functional Styles: Учебно-методическое пособие / Сост.:
ISBN 5-7779-0536-6 FUNCTIONAL STYLES Учебно-методическое пособие содержит теоретический материал по теме «Функциональные стили», а также тексты и задания Учебно-методическое пособие для закрепления материала. Практическая часть включает как пись менные тексты, так и тексты для аудирования, предполагающие работу с лексическим материалом, а также их стилистическими особенностями, как на материале английского языка, так и в сопоставлении с русским. Пособие разработано в соответствии с требованиями к уровню знаний по курсу «Аналитическое чтение».
Предназначено для студентов факультета иностранных языков и отделения «Регионоведение» исторического факультета.
Unit 5. Essay.......................................................................................Тексты для анализа снабжены разнообразными тренировочными упражнениями, предтекстовыми и послетекстовыми задаUnit 6. Newspaper Style.....................................................................ниями творческого характера с выходом в монологическую и диаUnit 7. Brief News Items....................................................................логическую речь. Пособие содержит разнообразные задания, наUnit 8. Belles-Lettres Style.................................................................правленные на расширение словарного запаса, вопросы для устного обсуждения и индивидуальных устных сообщений. Кроме того, разработанная система упражнений дает возможность развить навыки предпереводческого анализа текста, знакомит студентов с основными понятиями лингвистики текста (категориями текста).
Практическая направленность пособия позволяет развить у студентов умение применять полученные теоретические знания при анализе текстов различных функциональных стилей и жанров. Пособие позволяет совершенствовать навыки устного и развивать навыки письменного общения на английском языке.
Характер заданий позволяет использовать как индивидуальную и фронтальную, так и другие формы взаимодействия студентов (парную и групповую). В пособии использован аутентичный материал, интересный как с точки зрения языка, так и с культурологической точки зрения.
3 Note1. There is no unanimous opinion on the problem of distinUNIT guishing the belles-style as a separate one on the ground that fiction is INTRODUCTION in fact individual creative work of a writer who makes use of all the subsystems of the language – both the norm with its functional styles 1. Write about students' cheating in exams in the style of one of and regional and social varieties (slang, jargon, dialects). Colloquial genres below:
style is also a problem – it is a controversial issue, as it may include different features of different styles.
Scientific Note2. While analysing a text and referring it to a particular Prose style or a substyle, one should bear in mind that style divisions do not Ad coincide in different languages (as a result of tradition, language strucOratorical ture and some other grounds). Thus, a scientific text in English would Speech Fairy-tale Essay sound like a popular-scientific one in Russian. It is especially tangible in text headlines (e.g. Good Birds and Better Birds for an article in Newspaper Newspaper cognitive science) Headline Article Official In English-speaking tradition in this respect it is more common Document to differentiate between two types of discourse – scientific and journalistic writing, the main basis for differentiation there being the type 2. Read your pieces of writing to 3. What features of each of the addressee – a specialist and a general reader respectively. Then the class and compare them. Do genre can you distinguish texts can be further subdivided according to the topic they discuss into they have a lot in common economic, social, political and other types of discourse.
The difference between the journalistic and scientific writing Functional Styles can be also seen in the structure of statements that underlie the text – radial or chain (or concatenation).
Functional Style is a system of interrelated language means, which serves a definite aim in communication. Each style is recogsupporting nised as an independent whole. The peculiar choice of language means statements is primarily dependent on the aim of the communication, on the function the style performs.
Thesis As a matter of fact there exist a number of classifications of statement functional styles, but the most common one was introduced by I. R.
supporting supporting Galperin. It includes the belles-lettres style, the publicistic style, the statements statements newspaper style, the scientific prose style, and the style of official documents. All of them, though, can be further subdivided.
5 Radial structure – the information is presented several times UNIT from different vantage points and the author may get back to his main SCIENTIFIC PROSE STYLE claim several times repeating or paraphrasing it, giving various supporting arguments and evidence. This may be necessary when writing Function Features for the general reader.
• objective, precise, and mostly unemotional language supporting supporting supporting supporting supporting Thesis means; words used in primary logical meaning statements statements statements statements statements statement • use of terms and learned words • impersonality and generalized form of expression Concatenation (chain structure) – the thesis statement tends to reflected in the choice of grammar and syntactic conthe beginning; the information is not repeated several times. The struc- structions ture is used when communicating with a specialist in the sphere dis• logical sequence of utterances cussed.
• most developed system of connectives • accepted sentence-patterns:
postulatory, argumentative, and formulative • use of quotations and references • use of footnotes both of the reference kind and digressive in character PRACTICE TEXT 1. Do you know what a snowflake consists of and how the snowfall occurs Could you give a scientific explanation to this phenomenon Try to do it.
2. Read the article and check your guesses.
A snowfall consists of myriads of minute ice crystals that fall to the ground in the form of frozen precipitation. The formation of snow begins with these ice crystals in the subfreezing strata of the middle and upper atmosphere when there is an adequate supply of moisture 7 proving a hypothesis and creating new concepts present. At the core of every ice crystal is a minuscule nucleus, a solid b) Which verb from is particularly useful when scientists want to particle of matter around which moisture condenses and freezes. Liq- focus on what is done rather than who is doing it uid water 4 droplets floating in the supercooled atmosphere and free c) Which verb forms are particularly useful when the scientist is ice crystals cannot coexist within the same cloud, since the vapor pres- discussing his or her conclusions and wants to make it clear sure of ice is less than that of water. This enables the ice crystals to rob that the results are not yet established as fact the liquid droplets of their moisture and grow continuously. The proc- d) Which structures are particularly useful when scientists want to ess can be very rapid, quickly creating sizable ice crystals, some of talk about what happens or would happen under various condiwhich adhere to each other to create a cluster of ice crystals or a snow- tions flake. Simple flakes possess a variety of beautiful forms, usually hex- 6. Referring to the chart find in the text the features of the scientific agonal, though the symmetrical shapes reproduced in most microscope prose style.
photography of snowflakes are not usually found in actual snowfalls.
Typically, snowflakes in actual snowfalls consist of broken fragments TEXT and clusters of adhering ice crystals.
You will read an excerpt form the introduction to the famous For a snowfall to continue once it starts, there must be a conbook by Steven Pinker “The Language Instinct”.
stant inflow of moisture to supply the nuclei. This moisture is supplied Read the text and define its topic.
by the passage of an airstream over a water surface and its subsequent lifting to higher regions of the atmosphere. The Pacific Ocean is the 1. … Language is so tightly woven into human experience source of moisture for most snowfalls west of the Rocky Mountains, that it is scarcely possible to imagine life without it. Chances are that if you find two or more people together anywhere on earth, while the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean feed water vapor into they will soon be exchanging words. When there is no one to talk the air currents over the central and eastern sections of the United with, people talk to themselves, to their dogs, even to their plants.
States. Other geographical features also can be the source of moisture In our social relations, the race is not to the swift but to the verbal for some snowstorms. For example, areas adjacent to the Great Lakes – the spellbinding orator, the silver-tongued seducer, the persuaexperience their own unique lake-effect storms, employing a variation sive child who wins the battle of wills against a brawnier parent.
of the process on a local scale. In addition, mountainous sections or Aphasia, the loss of language following brain injury, is devastating, rising terrain can initiate snowfalls by the geographical lifting of a and in severe cases family members may feel that the whole person is lost forever.
2. This book is about human language. Unlike most books 3. What communicative function is performed in this text with “language" in the title, it will not chide you about proper us4. Scientific writing is characterized by a number of structures.
age, trace the origins of idioms and slang, or divert you with palinWhat do you think they are dromes, anagrams, eponyms, or those precious names for groups of animals like "exaltation of larks." For I will be writing not 5. Answer the questions below and find an example for each case in about the English language or any other language, but about the text above.
something much more basic: the instinct to learn, speak, and a) Which tense would scientists use when describing things that understand language. For the first time in history, there is someare always true thing to write about it. Some thirty-five years ago a new science 9 was born. Now called "cognitive science," it combines tools from the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities psychology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, and neuro- to process information or behave intelligently. For these reasons some biology to explain the workings of human intelligence. The science cognitive scientists have described language as a psychological faculty, of language, in particular, has seen spectacular advances in the a mental organ, a neural system, and a computational module. But I years since. There are many phenomena of language that we prefer the admittedly quaint term “instinct”. It conveys the idea are coming to understand nearly as well as we understand that people know how to talk in more or less the sense that spiders how a camera works or what the spleen is for. I hope to commu- know how to spin webs. Web-spinning was not invented by some nicate these exciting discoveries, some of them as elegant as any- unsung spider genius and does not depend on having had the right thing in modern science, but I have another agenda as well. education or on having an aptitude for architecture or the construction trades. Rather, spiders spin spider webs because they have spi3. The recent illumination of linguistic abilities has revoluder brains, which give them the urge to spin and the competence to tionary implications for our understanding of language and its role succeed. Although there are differences between webs and words, I in human affairs, and for our view of humanity itself. Most eduwill encourage you to see language in this way, for it helps to make cated people already have opinions about language. They know sense of the phenomena we will explore.
that it is man's most important cultural invention, the quintessential example of his capacity to use symbols, and a biologically un- 5. Thinking of language as an instinct inverts the popular precedented event irrevocably separating him from other animals. wisdom, especially as it has been passed down in the canon of the They know that language pervades thought, with different lan- humanities and social sciences. Language is no more a cultural inguages causing their speakers to construe reality in different ways. vention than is upright posture. It is not a manifestation of a general They know that children learn to talk from role models and caregivers. capacity to use symbols: a three-year-old, we shall see, is a gramThey know that grammatical sophistication used to be nurtured in the matical genius, but is quite incompetent at the visual arts, religious schools, but sagging educational standards and the debasements of iconography, traffic signs, and the other staples of the semiotics popular culture have led to a frightening decline in the ability of the curriculum. Though language is a magnificent ability unique to average person to construct a grammatical sentence. They also know Homo sapiens among living species, it does not call for sequestering that English is a zany, logic-defying tongue, in which one drives on a the study of humans from the domain of biology, for a magnificent parkway and parks in a driveway, plays at a recital and recites at a ability unique to a particular living species is far from unique in the play. They know that English spelling takes such wackiness to even animal kingdom. Some kinds of bats home in on flying insects using greater heights – George Bernard Shaw complained that fish could Doppler sonar. Some kinds of migratory birds navigate thousands of just as sensibly be spelled ghoti (gh as in tough, о as in women, ti miles by calibrating the positions of the constellations against the as in nation) – and I that only institutional inertia prevents the adop- time of day and year. In nature's talent show we are simply a spetion of a more rational, spell-it-like-it-sounds system. cies of primate with our own act, a knack for communicating information about who did what to whom by modulating the sounds we 4. In the pages that follow, I will try to convince you that make when we exhale.
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