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20 81.20 - ISBN 5-7779-0501-3 , 2004 2004 2 the conclusion on the passage I. WHAT IS RENDERING I. WHAT IS RENDERING your opinion of the problem (position) introduced in the passage Imagine you work in an office. Imagine one morning your boss There are several basic principles you are to follow in order to comes up to your desk with a file of papers and says: I want you to make a successful rendering:

read this up, represent it in a smaller volume, suppressing all insignifi You have to develop your power of judgment, so that you cant information, and give your own conclusion. He/she wont be saymay be able to decide rightly what must be expressed and ing like that, actually. He/she will say Render this, please what must be suppressed.

Rendering is defined in the Websters dictionary as art of mak In rendering, facts should be expressed as plain statements, ing presentations. Art indeed, as it requires a lot of your skills and with constant reference to the author of the passage. Try to knowledge of reconstructing and rearranging a written passage without avoid evaluative words and phrases in the body of the renany considerable damage to its context and idea(s).

dering, keep them for expressing your own opinion.

You may have to prepare rendering for two main purposes:

Figurative language is in most cases unsuitable one can read your rendering and wont have to take up the To master rendering you will need certain skills that are disoriginal passage.

cussed further.

one can read your rendering and decide for themselves if they need to take up the original passage or not.

Note: Rendering is, so to say, a working name for a type of eduRendering cant be produced without thorough comprehension cational activity/exercise commonly used in Russian Uniof the passage. Dividing the text into logical parts and singling out the versities. In British and American Universities a term abmain idea of each of them can be an essential help in understanding the stracting or summarizing is used to mean an indepassage. You will have to read the original more than once.

pendent work (not a step in the process of rendering as we All methods of rendering are based on the notional compression view it here) and is also translated into Russian as of the text, which presupposes the elimination of all types of redun. An

Abstract

is usually done in written form dancy, i.e. elements that repeat each other.

and presupposes no personal opinion or interpretation (for A rendering is a text based on the notional compression of the more information see Unit V).

original with the aim of rendering its general matter. The material in a rendering is presented from the point of view of the author of the original and does not include any elements of interpretation or evaluation.

Rendering can be performed with two aims: informative and educational. Since the objective of this textbook is to provide you with tools for oral rendering in the framework of Conversation Practice lessons, you will still be asked to give your opinion of the original text at the end of your rendering.

A rendering is usually kept to the following structure:

introduction, where you provide all necessary background information such as the title and source of the passage and state the main idea the body, where the main idea is revealed 3 sentence, be sure to underline it so that it will stand out not only now, II. SKILLS II. SKILLS but also later when you review.

A. Identifying the topic, main idea(s), and supporting details 2. Identifying the Topic:



Understanding the topic, the gist, or the larger conceptual The first thing you must be able to do to get at the main idea of a framework of a textbook chapter, an article, a paragraph, a sentence or paragraph is to identify the topic the subject of the paragraph. Think a passage is a sophisticated reading task. Being able to draw concluof the paragraph as a wheel with the topic being the hub the central sions, evaluate, and critically interpret articles or chapters is important core around which the whole wheel (or paragraph) spins. Your strategy for overall comprehension in college reading. Textbook chapters, artifor topic identification is simply to ask yourself the question, What is cles, paragraphs, sentences, or passages all have topics and main ideas.

this about Keep asking yourself that question as you read a paraThe topic is the broad, general theme or message. It is what some call graph, until the answer to your question becomes clear. Sometimes you the subject. The main idea is the key concept being expressed. Decan spot the topic by looking for a word or two that repeat. Usually you tails, major and minor, support the main idea by telling how, what, can state the topic in a few words.

when, where, why, how much, or how many. Locating the topic, main Let us try this topic-finding strategy. Reread the first paragraph idea, and supporting details helps you understand the point(s) the writer on this page the first paragraph under the heading Grasping the is attempting to express. Identifying the relationship between these will Main Idea. Ask yourself the question, What is this paragraph about increase your comprehension.

To answer, say to yourself in your mind, The author keeps talking about paragraphs and the way they are designed. This must be the topic 1. Grasping the Main Idea:

paragraph organization. Reread the second paragraph of the same section. Ask yourself What is this paragraph about Did you say to A paragraph is a group of sentences related to a particular topic, or central theme. Every paragraph has a key concept or main idea. The yourself, This paragraph is about different ways to organize a paragraph That is the topic. Next, reread the third paragraph and see if main idea is the most important piece of information the author wants you can find the topic of the paragraph. How Write the topic in the you to know about the concept of that paragraph.

margin next to this paragraph. Remember, getting the main idea of a When authors write they have an idea in mind that they are tryparagraph is crucial to reading.

ing to get across. This is especially true as authors compose paraThe bulk of an expository paragraph is made up of supporting graphs. An author organizes each paragraph's main idea and supporting details in support of the topic or central theme, and each paragraph sentences (major and minor details), which help to explain or prove the main idea. These sentences present facts, reasons, examples, definisupports the paragraph preceding it.

tions, comparison, contrasts, and other pertinent details. They are most A writer will state his/her main idea explicitly somewhere in the important because they sell the main idea.

paragraph. That main idea may be stated at the beginning of the paraThe last sentence of a paragraph is likely to be a concluding sengraph, in the middle, or at the end. The sentence in which the main idea tence. It is used to sum up a discussion, to emphasize a point, or to reis stated is the topic sentence of that paragraph.

The topic sentence announces the general theme (or portion of state all or part of the topic sentence so as to bring the paragraph to a close. The last sentence may also be a transitional sentence leading to the theme) to be dealt with in the paragraph. Although the topic senthe next paragraph.

tence may appear anywhere in the paragraph, it is usually first and for Of course, the paragraphs you'll be reading will be part of some a very good reason. This sentence provides the focus for the writer longer piece of writing a textbook chapter, a section of a chapter, or a while writing and for the reader while reading. When you find the topic 5 newspaper or magazine article. Besides expository paragraphs, in program such as bicycling, walking, jogging or aerobics for thirty minwhich new information is presented and discussed, these longer writ- utes four days a week will result in weight loss for the average person.

ings contain three types of paragraphs: introductory, transitional, and An increase in activity means the body will burn more calories, resultsummarizing. ing in weight loss. Second, moderate exercise helps develop and tone Introductory paragraphs tell you, in advance, such things as (1) muscles in the arms, legs, back, neck and shoulders. The body uses the main ideas of the chapter or section; (2) the extent or limits of the these muscles to exercise, and the activity helps the muscles become coverage; (3) how the topic is developed; and (4) the writer's attitude stronger. The heart, the most important muscle in the body, gets toward the topic. Transitional paragraphs are usually short; their sole stronger with exercise, which makes the heart work more efficiently.

function is to tie together what you have read so far and what is to This brings about the third benefit cardiovascular improvement. Excome to set the stage for succeeding ideas of the chapter or section. ercise causes the heart to pump blood throughout the body more effiSummarizing paragraphs are used to restate briefly the main ideas of ciently. The lungs deliver more oxygen to the cells, and breathing is the chapter or section. The writer may also draw some conclusion from easier. All of these benefits are the result of exercise, so start an exerthese ideas, or speculate on some conclusion based on the evidence cise program today! he/she has presented.





EXERCISE 3. The idea of the article is not always stated in EXERCISE 1. Read the following paragraph and underline one topic sentence, sometimes it is implied. Identify the main idea the stated main idea. Write down in your own words what you are of the following articles able to conclude from the information.

1) Opinion article:

The rules of conduct during an examination are clear. No books, The term paparazzi comes from a character called Paparazzo in calculators or papers are allowed in the test room. Proctors will not al- the Fellini film, La Dolce Vita, who rode around on a scooter taking low anyone with such items to take the test. Anyone caught cheating photographs of the rich and famous. Modern day paparazzi take photowill be asked to leave the room. His or her test sheet will be taken. The graphs of famous people, hoping to get them in an unflattering or comincident will be reported to the proper authority. At the end of the test promising pose. The photograph is then sold for an enormous sum of period, all materials will be returned to the proctor. Failure to abide by money, sometimes close to a million dollars, to the tabloid press.

these rules will result in a failing grade for this test. Some people say that celebrities are public property and that this invasion of privacy is to be expected thats show business, they say.

EXERCISE 2. Identify the topic sentence and the supporting I think that is true up to a point, but celebrities are being followed, hardetails assed, chased, provoked and spied on in their own homes. Thats not show business, thats criminal.

A typical paragraph is organized like this:

I. The Main Idea Sentence (the topic sentence):

2) Information article:

A. Supporting Detail #According to recent medical research, sleeping more than nine B. Supporting Detail #hours or less than six hours a night can shorten your life expectancy.

C. Supporting Detail #Those who are likely to live longest are people who regularly get beII. Concluding (or Summary) Sentence tween seven and eight hours a night.

There are three main benefits from exercise: weight loss, muscle A new survey of 1,000 adults conducted by the Better Sleep tone, and cardiovascular improvement. First of all, a moderate exercise Council (BSC) found that few people understand the important role 7 sleep plays in normal daily brain functions and many people actually years longer than those born in 1960, the World Bank said in a report reduce their brain power by getting too little sleep. issue yesterday.

One in three adults admit that they do not get enough sleep, and LISBON, Portugal (Reuters) Antonio Gutteres, Portugals lack of sleep is leaving millions of people without the energy to work prime minister, faces a struggle to deliver promised reforms of taxaas hard as they should. Although a large number of people say that they tion, social security and health service after his socialist party failed to need to be mentally alert in their work, over half of the people inter- win an absolute majority in Sundays general election viewed say that they sleep just under 7 hours a night during the week. On LONDON (Reuters) John Stonehouse, former British cabinet the other hand, most of the people interviewed say that they sleep more minister who faked his death by drowning, was freed from jail yesterthan seven hours a night at the weekend. This suggests that a signifi- day after serving three years for theft, fraud and deception cant number of people try to catch up on their sleep at the weekend in- stead of getting enough sleep during the week, when they most need it. EXERCISE 5. Find the main idea of the whole article, make up a title for it.

3) News article:

The Sun, the best selling British tabloid newspaper, is not ready JAY GARNER, the retired American general in charge of reyet to stop displaying the topless Page Three Girls building Iraq, held a big meeting with some of the country's prospecThe word from the Suns headquarters in London on Wednesday tive leaders on Thursday April 24th. A number of prominent Iraqis was no change at the moment despite overnight remarks from the were invited to a heavily guarded conference centre in Baghdad. The papers owner Rupert Murdoch, in Australia that the bare-breasted phoevent followed a massive religious celebration by hundreds of thoutographs might be phased out because readers tastes had changed.

sands of Iraq's Shia Muslims, who took part in a pilgrimage once supThere has been intense debate about putting topless girls in the pressed by Saddam Hussein. This has increased concerns among memnewspapers over since Stephane Rahn posed for the Sun in 1970, exbers of the invading coalition that some Iraqis may use religious orposing the first two of approximately 16,000 breasts that have appeared ganisations to try to establish a fundamentalist government, like that in ever since.

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