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At the same time the EU wants to develop a common defence capacity that will help it punch its collective weight in the world and so make it less dependent on America for its security. But unless European defence spending and procurement programmes change fundamentally, Europe's forces will be woefully under-armed when measured against America's. Europe spends only a third as much as America on research and development for defence. The maintenance of national armies and national weapons programmes within the EU denies the European defence establishment the economies of scale available to its counterpart in the United States. That leaves the Europeans lagging behind in most areas of high-technology weaponry, the research and development for which strains even a Pentagon-sized budget.

Hence this modest proposal: let the EU stop wasting $45 billion a year on driving up the price of food, and let it use the money to pay for a new research and development agency serving the European defence industry. At a stroke, European spending on defence research would outstrip even that of the United States. And, since national governments would be mad to waste their taxpayers' money maintaining rival weapons programmes of their own when world-beating European designs were available and paid for, over time European armies would 41 end up with the same weapons. This would help ensure a common de- 4) What measures can help ensure a common defence capacity fence capacity that worked efficiently in practice, and assist an even- and eventual merging of forces tual merging of forces if that was the way Europe wanted to go. 5) What kind of industry is defence research Defence research is one of the very rare industries in which an 6) What is the authors conclusion in the article economic case could be made for EU intervention. It is already domi- nated by government policy, not by market forces. Managing it at a 3. Give a summary of the text.

European level would generate economies of scale without loss of pre- vious market efficiency. Contrast that with the common agricultural policy, where EU intervention demands a tireless fight against market forces that would otherwise help to deliver good cheap food to the European table.

Atlanticists should support a switch in EU spending from farms to defence, because it will answer to American demands that Europe do more to provide for its own defence. Anti-Atlanticists should applaud the idea because it will help Europe to provide credibly for its own security. Farmers, of course, will scream blue murder. It is hard to imagine a better set of incentives 1. Vocabulary notes:

1) ploughshares into swords 2) fleece , 3) rig 4) procurement , 5) woefully , 6) lagging 7) at a stroke , 8) outstrip , 9) world-beating , 10) scream blue murder , 2. Answer the following questions.

1) Do you think the title of the text is symbolic Why 2) Enumerate the drawbacks of subsidizing farmers through the common agricultural policy by the European Union.

3) What does the author say comparing European defence and Americas defence forces 43 Are the Rules being Bent Again take the widely expected step of dismissing all charges against Mr Moussaoui, who could face life imprisonment if convicted of the A judge says an accused terrorist can call the witnesses he wants. No, charges still pending. Her desire to keep the case under civilian jurishe cant diction appears to have been among her reasons for wishing to continue with a truncated trial. "This case can be resolved in an open and public A federal judge has ruled that prosecutors may not seek the death forum," she declared.

penalty against Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person in the United Among the options now facing the government is the possibility States to have been charged so far in connection with the September of transferring the trial to a military tribunal whose rules, including the 11th terror attacks. Nor may they present any evidence linking this soright to extensive hearings behind closed doors, would be likely to help called "20th hijacker" with the planning or execution of the attacks.

the prosecution. But this would attract widespread criticism. The govThe ruling, by a district judge, Leonie Brinkema, came after the federal ernment is already under attack for its treatment of some 660 al-Qaeda government refused to allow Mr Moussaoui to question al-Qaeda susand Taliban suspects held at Guantanamo Bay, an American naval base pects who, he claims, could prove his innocence. The government says in Cuba, where they are supposed to be awaiting trial before special it will appeal.

military courts. Although some have now been detained for over Mr Moussaoui, a 35-year-old French man of Moroccan descent, months, no charges have yet been brought. Nor have any of the prisonwas first arrested in the United States in August 2001 on minor immiers, who include citizens of some of America's closest allies, had acgration charges. It was not until after the suicide hijackings the next cess to a lawyer or a consular official.

month that investigators began to take a keener interest in the Muslim Despite the criticism, the American government insists the trainee pilot being held in a Minnesota jail. Three months later Mr Guantanamo Bay detainees are not prisoners of war but "enemy comMoussaoui was charged on six counts of conspiracy four of them batants", who are being held outside strictly-defined United States terpunishable by death to commit acts of terrorism, aircraft piracy, use ritory (the Guantanamo base is leased in perpetuity from Cuba) and of weapons of mass destruction, destruction of aircraft, murder of govtherefore have no rights under either the Geneva Conventions or the ernment employees and destruction of government property.

American constitution. Last month Donald Rumsfeld, the secretary of Although he admitted being a member of al-Qaeda, Mr Mousdefence, seemed to confirm suspicions that the government does not saoui claimed he knew nothing about the attacks until after they had wish to bring these prisoners to trial. "Our interest," he said, "is not in occurred. In an attempt to prove his innocence, he sought to question trying them and letting them out. Our interest is in-during this global three key al-Qaeda prisoners, including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the war on terror-keeping them off the streets, and so that's what's taking alleged mastermind of 9/11, and Mustafa Ahmed, its alleged financier.

place." But that war could go on for a very long time, perhaps for decIn two rulings earlier this year, Judge Brinkema ordered that he should ades.

be allowed to question by satellite link the three men, all being held at The government insists the Guantanamo prisoners are being secret locations outside the United States. The government has refused treated "humanely". All now have individual indoor cells, proper beds, to comply, arguing that national security could be jeopardised by the washing facilities and toilets. In July six of them, including two Britons disclosure of confidential information.

and an Australian, were said to be eligible for trial. But, since then, In her latest ruling, delivered on October 2nd, Judge Brinkema nothing. No charges have been brought and no trial date set. Britain has said the government could not "maintain this capital prosecution while made known its "strong reservations" about it all.

simultaneously refusing to produce witnesses who could, at a minimum, help the defendant avoid a sentence of death". But she refused to 45 1. Vocabulary notes: Breathe or be Strangled 1) rule , ( ) If eskimos have dozens of 2) prosecutor words for snow, Germans have as 3) hijacker , many for bureaucracy. The most popu4) suspect . lar is Amtsschimmel, a word of ob5) alleged , scure origin that translates roughly as 6) mastermind , the office horse. The government 7) comply , declares that it is bent on chasing these 8) defendant , clodhoppers out of Germany. But has 9) pending , it any more chance of success than in 10) treatment , the past The Institute for the German 11) detain , Economy, the research arm of the countrys business associations, 12) try . , hopes so, if only because the economy might be strangled to death 13) eligible , unless red tape is loosened.

Germans are fed up with forms and rules. Pollsters at the Allens2. Statements for discussion.

bach Institute say that as many as 90 % of Germans have had rows with 1. Al-Oaeda is a very potent, well-financed, militant organizabureaucrats, up from 64 % in 1978. Bild, Germanys biggest tabloid, tion, responsible for a lot of suicide hijackings.

recently sent out a reporter in search of ridiculous rules. One example:

2. An accused terrorist cant call the witnesses he wants because a tailor who had to put up a sign saying fire extinguisher next to of threat to the US national security, caused by possible disclosure of (guess what) her fire extinguisher, to produce a thick folder with all confidential information.

regulations relevant to her business, to raise her work table by ten cen3. Military court provides detainees with less rights than civilian timeters, to buy a special emergency kit, and to check if her only emcourt.

ployee was allergic to nickel at a cost of 400 ($428).

4. Keeping some 660 al-Qaeda and Taliban suspects at GuanGermany is, in short, one of the most rule-bound countries in the tanamo Bay may be Solomons decision of the American Governworld. And that is bad news for the economy, particularly for entreprement.

neurs hoping to set up in business. A new World Bank study, Doing 5. Prisoners of all kinds should be treated humanely.

Business in 2004, illustrates the problem. The study shows that it takes an average of 45 days to register a new firm in Germany, com3. Give a summary of the text.

pared with 18 in Britain and only four in America. The process is also cheaper in America, Britain, Canada and France than in Germany.

The government has launched a masterplan for reducing bureaucracy, listing dozens of cases where archaic rules should be scrapped or simplified. It recently brought in a bill to do away with such workplace regulations as where to put light switches or the shape of rubbish bins. The government has also chosen three regions where some laws will be suspended while local and federal agencies try out alternatives.

47 Yet it will take years for Germany to match America and Britain. Spying on the Spies Germans may inveigh against bureaucrats, but they have a soft spot for Throughout the 1990s, Perus National Intelligence Service was state mollycoddling. In any case, over a third of the members of the fedsynonymous with Vladimiro Montesinos, the sinister spy chief who eral parliament are former civil servants, hardly likely to be in the forespun a web of corruption and intimidation from the heart of the authorifront of a campaign to cut bureaucracy. Even some businessmen are amtarian government of Alberto Fujimori. Since July 2001, Peru has been bivalent, for regulation can be useful barrier to competition. The supposgoverned democratically under President Alejandro Toledo, and Mr edly free market opposition has attacked government plans to loosen Montesinos is now in jail. But the intelligence service remains in turlaws protecting guilds of architects and craftsmen from competition.

moil-just when once again Peru needs one.

The language of officialdom hardly helps. A recent example of Last month, Mr Toledo sacked the services head, Alfonso cutting red tape was a law to speed up approval for building roads. Its Panizo, a retired admiral, the fourth man to hold the job in two years.

name: VerkehrswegeplanungsbeschleunigunVerkehrsweggsgesetz.

His departure came after it had emerged that one of the presidents phone calls had been tapped, and the tape of the call given to a scandal1. Vocabulary notes:

hungry television programme. Another television show then accused 1) red tape , the intelligence service of spying on several awkward journalist. Mr 2) skirmish , Panizo denied the charges; his agents were simply trying to discover 3) strangle , who has leaking secrets to the media, he said.

4) clodhopper , The new intelligence chief is Daniel Mora, a retired general but 5) pollster , also a member of Mr Toledos Peru Posible party (its secretary for eth6) folder , ics, no less). His appointment has stirred controversy: opponents say 7) scrap ( ) that the intelligence service should serve the state, rather than the gov8) inveigh erning party. But the bigger problem is that the service needs thorough 9) soft spot reform.

10) mollycoddle , Mr Montesinos still casts a long shadow. He turned the service 11) ambivalent from a small group of academics and analysts into a lavish outfit 12) officialdom , packed with military men engaged in dirty tricks. Sophisticated moni2. Statements for discussion.

toring equipment, some donated by Americas Central Intelligence 1) Germans are fed up with forms and rules much more than Agency to fight drugs, was diverted to political and commercial use.

Russians are.

Mr Montesinos routinely tapped the phones of politicians, journalists, 2) Too many rules is bad for any economy.

top businessman and judges; he even surreptitiously recorded some of 3) It is easy to do business in Germany in a civilized way, for Mr Fujimoris private meetings.

business culture has had long history there.

Mr Toledos government has slashed the services budget and 4) Germans are ambivalent concerning cutting their bureaucpersonnel (though in it still overstaffed). The perverse result is that racy. Prove that.

most of the monitoring equipment now seems to be in the hands of pri5) Red tape in Russia. Could you give some examples vate security companies, some run by former army cronies of Mr Mon6) Business culture in Russia. Has it made any progress recently tesinos. In effect, telephone-tapping has been privatized; the results are leaked to pursue political vendettas.

3. Give a summary of the text.

49 Apart from poisoning politics, all this is bad for public safety. Part III. ARTICLES FOR TRANSLATING Peru has real security threats that need watching. Drug exports are ris- ing, as is kidnapping. Though nothing like the threat they used to be, Money in, Money out small groups of Shining Path guerrillas roam remote areas. The country Beijing need spies but honest ones.

Although China's financial links with the rest of the world are 1. Vocabulary notes:

expanding, data about them remain scant. That may be why China1) sinister , watchers place undue emphasis on what is published regularly, namely 2) spin (spun, spun) , the monthly data on China's external trade and foreign direct invest3) intimidation , ment (FDI). These have painted a mildly warming picture of late. Ex4) turmoil , ports seem to be picking up at last, while FDI down by just 10 % this 5) tap . year has not fallen as much as some had feared. The case for a yuan 6) controvercy , devaluation, many conclude, is weakening. Yet there are other signs.

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