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B. A. oyx, . . eec CCTEM TEXHOO OMTEPHOO POBOCTBA TEXHOO HTEPAHX MPOCXEM eoe ocoe 2000 621.396.6.002.2 32.844 77 oyx B. A., eec . .

77 Cce exoo oepoo pooca.Texoo epax pocxe: e. ocoe / CA. C., 2000. 124 c.

Paccapac poe poocex cce ooe epoo aapayp. aea ac pao ocea ye exooecx poecco pooca pocxe.

pecae opoc opaa appyo exoo cpaee exo-ooece oe coc poy.

ocoe peaaeo cyeo eo eepe op oye exooecx ooecx ceaoce, oe cooao p poee ypcooo ooo poepoa.

Peee:

aepa poepo exoo paoepoo aapayp Ca-eepypcoo ocyapceoo epoexecoo yepcea;

aa execx ay oe A. C. ype - CA, 2000 B. A. oyx, . . eec 2 PECOBE O aex ayx apae, aeo cee opeex popecc cpa, ec poepoa. C e ca o a pa epo epexo epoo aapayp (A) a eey ay peeo ooe. Ocoy popo peeo ooe coca epae pocxe (M), coepae ooe oeco ax accx eeo. epe papao M oocc 19581960 .

Ocoa oea epa poepo pcya e epa: exooeca (cooae pyox eoo ooe), ocpya (oeee eeo a oo ooe) ayo-execa (cooae ocex oce oac eayp, x, . .).

peee M aece eeo a A oeceo aeoe oee cpoec aeoc, copaee aapo epoopee o cpae c A opoo ooe.

ocoe acao cooec c popaa ypco o exoo e paopopocpoe ceaoce poepoae exoo paoepox cpec, Meee Mape, a ae oe cooao cyea ooecx ceaoce p ye ypca Cce exoo oepoo pooca, ypcoo oo poepoa.

aoe ocoe pacpae oe opoc exoo pooca M paccapae oe p ocpoe exooecx poecco a oeo ypae, x coca xapaepc exooecx poecco a oapa.

1. MPOETPOHA.

HTEPAHE MPOCXEM Mpoepoa ec copee apaee epo, oo c oo cooo oeca ecx, xecx, cxeoexecx, exooecx pyx eoo peo pe poey coa cooaex oox apx cxe ycpoc.

Bcooaee poepoe ycpoca oy oye cee eaex eeo, coepecoae exooecx eoo ooe eeo coee, cee paox ooce yeee poc peo pao, cooae ox cxe, a ae ocpoee eeo ycpoc a ox ecx pax. Cee cooc ycpoc oe ocyo cee epaoax oepa, copaee ca coee, cee paeo epea eeo epexoo epea cxe, yo ex oo.

1.1. acca ocoe a ooe pocxe accuuau upocxe. o ocpyo-exooecoy coe cpyyp epae pocxe opae a e ocoe py (pc. 1): oypoooe pe, poe (eoe, ayye, epaece p.).

Hoynpoouoo (M) aa pocxey, ce ee eeee coee oopo oe oee a oepxoc oypoooo ac; oppyec a ocoe opx MO-pacopo.

Heoo aa pocxey, ce ee, eeee coee oae oa oopo oe a epeco ooe e eo. ac cyae M c oopcae M.

Pc. 1. acca pocxe o ocpyo-exooecoy coe cpyyp upuo (M) aa pocxey, coepay poe eeo, pecax coo epaeoe o epeco oo ocpyoe eoe, ooe () pca.

onoem M ac M, peaya y aoo-o epopaoeea, o oopa, oe o eea, oe eea a caocoeoe ee c o pe peoa ca, pee, ocae cyaa.

pucma ac oypoooo ac, oee a oepxoc oopo coppoa ee, eeee coee oae oa oo M.

Ocoe ocmpymue eem upocxe. a epaa pocxea coco cpyyp, eeo opyca cpec cop, . e. eae, oeceax coee cpyyp c opyco c e epec oa.

Cmpymypa ec yoao ocoo pocxe. Oa coep ce ee ( ooe pca), eeee coee oae oa. pe cpyyp ooe aapayp e: o xpy, paec eooo o oa cpyyp epece ocoee, a x apaep co ee oec.



opnyc peoxpae cpyypy o exaecx apyo opyae cpe p cyaa pocxe, a ae oeceae yo ae oa pocxe aapaypy. y po oe o e oo ceao ooe opyc (opyce pocxe), a ae epepy coca, oop aa cpyyp (ecopyce pocxe).

Cpecma copu poe poa, poooe o, oe pa (e) p. O oo poo ype cpyyp ocoe x oae oa e epec oa, cya e pocxe epoy aapaypy.

B acoc o eeo ocpyoo oope paa opyce, ecopyce opoae M. Oco aepao ecopyco epea ec acacca. epepoae acaccy M e oe e opy aape paep. M aco aa pocxea acaccox opycax. p opoao epea apaypa co cpyypo oeaec ceao ooey py, ae ce coooe pocpaco yp p aoec epeo.

B exoo ooe o pocxe oo e ocoe a (pc. 2), oe cex pocxe: ooee oca ac ooe, oppoae cpyyp pocxe, copa, ca epe, aee oepa. Ec pocxey epepy opyc, o oooe cop c poecc ooe eae yo, opyco; ecopycx pocxe epe oee cop poo poecc o oo epepyx cocao poecc ooe apayp ocoee cpyyp (oe pa, e p.).

Pc. 2. a ooe pocxe poecc ooe o pocxe copooaec opo oepa aepaec ca. oce ca epe apaepo yoeope peoa pocxe poxo aee oepa (opaca, apoa, appoa, yaoa), ocya a ca ooo poy epea aay, ooe epoo aapayp.

omoeue nacmu u nooe oypoooe ac epece oo c pyo aooa ooe cpyyp pocxe.

oypoooe ac pe ae ooe aecx ax ooeo pcao px pocxe.

Ha epecx ooax oaa accy ac cpyyp px pocxe, a ae eoe pocxe. B acoee pe poeoo ooe oypooox pocxe pe pe (Si). poe pe oypooox pocxe aecx ax ooeo pcao pocxe pe apce a (GaAs) pye oypoooe coee.

Cpyypa coca oypooo opee apaep xapaepc pocxe. B cooec c peoa apaepa pocxe pa oypooo aepa opeeeo ap opeeeo pcaopaeco opea.

px eox pocxe pe oo ceo, cao, oocao, epa. Cpaeo eao aa pe e oepe oo, ocoo oa, a ae eaece oo c epec ope (Al-Al2 O3). poe oo, pe oopcaece epece oo capa.

ooee ac ooe ae: exaecy opaoy oypooox epecx aepao ocy oepxoc oyex aooo.

Mexaeca opaoa oypooo epo apyea x co epoc xpyoc. He peoeyec cooa oe eo exaeco opao, peee eaoopaaae poeoc, ae, apep, a poaa, aoa, pya. ooe ac ooe oopcaecx co cox aooo pe eo apao opao, . e. opao oee ep, o eee xpy, e opaaaea oepxoc, aepao.

oopcaecx co o aaa apao opao poep pcaopaecy opea, a a oopyoae paa co e oeceae ooo coae eoepeco oc ca c aa pcaopaec apaee.

Oca ac, ooe oce apao opao oaea, a a a x oepxocx ocac ape, oope eoyc aee exooeco poecce. aee ape o peyeoo ypo co pecae coy aay, a a coa ape oy ca exooece opao opyaa cpea. eo ooy ocy oepxoc ac ooe o ecoo pa, a poecce apao opao p x ooe, a oce, .e. eocpeceo epe oepa ooe cpyyp.

B poecce exaeco opao epe ooee cpyyp ocy ac ooe poeo pooce, acoee pe, o pax x cocaax: opaecx pacopex, oe, cecx a ocoe co, eoe, cx ocee. Cyxa oca ec o , a pao, coeea c ocey oepa ooe cpyyp.

opupoaue cmpymyp upocxe o a coco oppoa eeo, eeex coee oax oao cooec c oooec epea epa papea cpyyp, .e. oye eeo aao oypa, paepo, aoo pacooe opoao ococ (oepxoc) ac ooe aax paepo epao apae (o eo, y epoa). B cooec c ce eo ooe cpyyp oo pae a p py: eo oppoa ooo, eo oye eo, eo epoa ac apaa oypooox coe. Meo ocee py oocc oo poecca oye oypooox cpyyp. Cpyyp pocxe oaa oo pyo eoo. Oopeeo opaoe a oce oepa oepaec ap ac ooe, a ao x oppyec e oa, a oeco cpyyp.





Copa u epemuau upocxe Oepo o copo opayea aepa poecc coee eae copox e (yo), peyae oopoo oyaec oooe ee. cop opycx M apaeo oaa ea y opyco, pe cyae ooey apaypy, apep, oe pa, o a eox ocex p. cop ecopycx M ooaa epepye coca oaa apaypy ocoee cpyyp. Copa M ae ocoeee oa cpyyp ocoa opyco, o paa ooe ooa, oa aecx pcao, ooeo aa, ocoeee epox oo oa oaa e oa M, epea. Haece pca ooe oaa oo oex poeccax oca e oeyx e.

cnmau u uepeu opao M, coepax cpe ee, oce epea poo exooece ca epee apaepo.

Texooece ca ec a aece, exaece epece. p aecx cax M poep a epopoae, ao-, eo- xoooycooc. C oo exaecx ca a yap popooc poep exaecy pooc ocpy ypcxex coee M. B poecce epecx ca pooc ooa pepoa poepa M a caoc, a ae epee apaepo M.

aumee onepauu ae oepa oocc opaca, apoa, aaece op, appoa, oooa oo ocoee aapaypy, yaoa. Mappoa, coepaa ycooe ooaee M, ooaee epoo oa, o ec yca, oap a pep eo oea execoo opo, oa a ao ycaeo pocxee. aoae pocxe ocya a ca ooo poy.

2. PH OPMPOBAH CTPTP MPOCXEM Bauoc npoemupoau ocmpyuu u mexoouu. B oe o paox epox cxe a epopaoeeax, poepoae oopx paec ao ac o aee exoo, pocxe poepoae ece opao cao c exooe x ooe. o ocec e, o M peca coo eoe ocpyoe eoe c eca o oeco eeo ax paepo. apaep aoo eea paoe xapaepc pocxe eo opeec e oo ooc ooo, o opo oax aepao exoo. p o eoxoo yec aop, e a ooc poecco oppoa ooo. ae eaee ooe o aax exooecx peo po ooe o eoxoo ooo. poe oo, ey eea pocxe cea cyecy eeaee aoec apae e, oope ae eoxoo ya co yy.

aoap aoacoc ocpy exoo p poepoa M cxo a, apy c e ocpy, epec cyaao, c ae, opaae oooc opae exoo. eo o opee oay ocpy M.

Ta opao, pocxe o poepoa ocpy exoo eco aoca, p o exoo pae opeea po.

Ocoe npuun umepao mexoouu. p ooe cpyyp pocxe pyoocyc opeee pa, oope oycoe aoc poepoa ocpy M exoo x ooe pao cee oocc oo.

Hpuun coecmuocmu eemo eae ocpyoo eca epax pocxe. a ee pocxe oe o epopaoeeo paox epox cxe oaa e oeo exooeco poecce, a eo co ce py eea. pocxe ee eo e oo c ocpyo, o c exooeco epae, p oopo oo exooeco poecce oopeeo oaac pae ee (apep, pacop, o, pecop, oecaop). eo ooy p ope o ocpy eeo, xox coca pocxe, eoxoo oe paecy oooc x coecoo oppoa eo exooeco poecce. poe oo, p poepoa eoxoo yec, o oypooox pocxe apaep eeo ae aoac opeec coca apaepa aepaa oypooox ac, a oopx oaaec pocxea.

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