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B. . Apee, . B. pa, B. . Mxao AHOCTA AM OHAM POBOMOCT eoe ocoe 2000 533.9.082.7(075) 22.632 A65 Apee B. ., pa . B., Mxao B. .

A65 aoca a oa poooc: e. ocoe / CA. C., 2000. 104 c.: .

peaaeoe yeoe ocoe oceo cceoa epoecx xapaepc aex opaoa, a aee opaoa, opyae ocece aapa a paeop cyca. Paccope accec eo ooo aoc, o ocooe ae yeeo cooa oo poooc. p o pee ocpy oo poooc, eopeece oco epe apaepo a oa, eo apo oo epooece oco x cooa. Paccope peya epe apaepo a peax ycox oea ocecx aapao.

peaaeo cyeo paoexecx ceaoce, a ae eepo ayx paoo, ceapyxc oac paoepo.

Peee: aepa poepo exoo Ca-eepypcoo ocyapceoo epoexecoo yepcea; oop execx ay poeccop . . yo - eoe ae Apee Bap eoo pa a Beao Mxao Bop eopo AHOCTA AM OHAM POBOMOCT eoe ocoe Peaop A.. apuooa oepa epca H. C. Cmenaoo e P 020341 o 07.05.97. Cao aop 03.02.00. ocao ea 22.06.00. opa 6084 1/16. yaa . 3. ea ocea. c. e. 6,04.

c. p.-o. 6,16. .-. . 6,5. Tpa 150 . aa Peaoo-aec oe Ceop oepx aecx exoo Oe oepao opa CA 190000, Ca-eepyp, y. . Mopca, 67 CA, 2000 B. . Apee, . B. pa, B. . Mxao, 2000 2 pecoe epec o ao coyec aece ocooo cpeca aoc epoecx xapaepc aex opaoa. yee x xapaepc caoc ce oee aya c c opacae eoxooc cceoa aex opaoa, opyax ocec aapa a paeop cyca, pee poe oecee epepo paoc co cycae ocec aapaa, a a o cyae apyee paoc aec ae co a, apae ae, a oope paoa opoe paocce.

1. OH POBOMOCT 1.1. accec eo ooo aoc B acoee pe papaoa eco papaaac eo aoc aeo ooo, opyae epyoo eae aapa (A) oee. ac x pecae coo oa eoo, coyex aoc aopaopo a. Ceye oe, o o copeex eoo aoc e oeceae epe cex eoxox apaepo oeo a poo aaoe ee oepa epoo yex eox ooo. cex cyecyx a ceo e eoo aoc popoo a aapaypo peaoa pec paec oo a paoepec oo.

Meo epecx oo, peoe epe epo Mo-Co acceco paoe [1] oee 50 e aa, o cx op ec o ocox cocoo opeee apaepo oeepaypo a. epece o oaac oe aoc popoo a a cycaex ocecx aapaax [25]. Oocea pocoa ex oox epe eae o eo oee peoe o cpae c py ec eoa aoc (CB-eo, oece).

Meo epecx oo coxpae coe aee aoap oy aoy paoy peyecy paec epe ce py a aoc, o o, ecop a oce o cpae c ecoa cocoa epe oye, ae oooc opee oae apaep a.

oo eo ooe opee epoy eepaypy peeax o 0,1 o 1000 B epoe oepa peeax o 106 o 1016 c3 [6].

B cax [7, 8] oca ee cepe, oopx aoca popoo a ocyecec c oo epecx oo (poe "RAM" poe "Tpeaep-II"). Oeaec, o p cyecye eop epecx oo x ocpyx (cyae, e cyae) peee x opaeo, aa c co pepo 50 e, e yco aeo coe c ca e. Oao coepecoae eop, a ae peee ox epo aece oopo oe ocpy oox ao ecoeo oo pacp aao x pee o coe.

Peya cepeo o opeee apaepo oeo a p ce x oe oo oeoc oa e c oe yoeope. Heoxoo aeo oe a o oee ycox oea A oox ao, a ae pao eppepoa oyee c x oo ae.

cceoa epa, a aopa eop epecx oo, opae cyae a oo ae, oa cooe ey aca oo peepe. Ey yaoc ocpo ooceo pocy ypee coacoay eop. Teop cepeaa exa oox epe a coo ooc aeo ycoc. B o cyae pyo ycao pay ooay c ey eo oooo oa apaepa a. B o pe a eop epa ocoaec a aoax coxpae ep oea oeca e ypae yaccoa c cooecy pa yco, p coa eop, yae cooe ey aca a, pxoc o p ox apaepo, ax a ooc, oe y aco oa. ocee co oepe ca ooo coo acoc c a ea (ca opecoc oa caoopaoe eee), a apeoc epecoo o pacpeeee ac a o copoc.



epecx oo ae cooo ae ocoe apaep xapaepc ocaoo xopoo ye caoapo pee, p yco, o copaa oepxoc oa oea eaoo eccpyeo pooa ocycye ypyeoc. Bce cyecye eop [2, 7, 9] c pe, x cea p ypoax oye peooe, oope e cea oc a pae.

B eco epaype oo e ecoo cepeax pao, ocex epecoy opoa aex cpy p ae, o aocepoy, eepaypax e (56)103 . Peya eoopx x poopea a py pyy, a oa cooecyx eop [10, 11].

B ycox peaoo oea o oepaec oec cox eepayp, -a eo pocxo pacee aepaa oa, . e. eoepece paep oa ec. ee eoep eoxoo ya p opaoe peyao oox epe. Copoc pace ac o pa aopo (eooo ooa, aepaa epoo . .). Ta opao, poecc pace aepaa oa ao oc opeoc peya oox epe, oopy pyo yec. poe oo, ec oepxoc oa apea o ocaoo coo eepayp ooceo eepayp, cooecye paoe xoa epoo eaa, o oae epoepoa cc. cc oe ae oy peyae oappo oo oa (opa epoa cc). cc epoo oe cyeceo e pacpeee oeaa ooo oa, a o eop, e yae cc, oy oaac epaoep. eec p pao, oopx paccapaec e cc epoo a peya oox epe. x ceye, o cc e e a epo o ace, a aae ayc o o ace peyae cc apacae.

oa ypoe cc ooceo eco, epoy eepaypy oo oy o cocoo, e eoxoe opa. o ooo, apep, cya opo epoo cc, ao oo oappoo oa. Ha pae ypoe epoo cc eece, e cyecye pocoo eoa opeee eepayp epoo oeaa pocpaca a ocoe epex o-aepx xapaepc. poe oo, peax ycox pao o apec. oepxoce oca e coca oepxoc [12]. o po c cae oaepx xapaepc, paac yee x aoa c yeee ape oepxoc, o ee ooy ae epeoo ae epoo eepayp. Ocaee epoox aepao a oex yacax oepxoc epoa yeae ey oa eo oepxoc. Haoopo, ocaee pooeo aepaa, opayeoc peyae cape pace oepxoc epoa, a oepxoc oopo, pax epoa, oe yea ey oa epoo a yey oa. caoeo, o cee yy ape c ycexo oo cooa eo oepa oa o o opae oeaa (opa 100200 B) aoe a eo yca ape, p oopo apee a oe eec peeax, oeceax oyee ooo xapaepc. oo opae oea ae oappoy oepxoc oa ocaoo cooepeec oa, o po pace ape oye, a opao, co oepxoc epe ce ooo xapaepc.

epece o paoa p ox eepaypax opyae cpe (aoopaoa). B x ycox oepxoc epa, oopoo ooe oop oa, oe pacac ca oopooe. p o o oa aec epe pacae co epa epee apaepo a caoc eoo. Ceoaeo, epec aepaa, pee ooe oox ao (cooyoc epoa oopa), o pec coe peoa (epocooc, exaeca pooc).

Ha ocoa eoeoo pee epee amopo, oaaux cyecmeoe uue a onpeeeue napaempo naoopaoau c noo oox amuo ycoux peaoo noema.

1. Caecoe aee pceoo opao coe P.

c 2. ooe aee P (c yeo copoc ea, a oopo ycao e o).

3. Pacee aepaa epoo (eee eoep) o ece coo eepayp aoopaoa.

4. Tepoepoa cc p eepaype, cooecye eepaype xoa epoo eaa epoo.

5. Bopa epoa cc peyae oappo oo oa.

6. apee oepxoc epoo:





a) epoo aepaa (yea ey oa oepxoc) a ce a eoaoo op (T);

) poo aepaa (yea ey oa oepxoc) a ce pace epoo.

7. Co epoo-ooo pacaa a oepxoc oopa, aa epo.

Ec e aop, aa c peeo, oycoe ocpye oooo aa, o epe a opee peeoc eop epecx oo (opaoa o-aepx xapaepc acoc o ae pceoo coe).

Paccop e ae pceoo coe a peya oox epe. o peyaa oeox paceo oecoo aapaa, xoeo aocepy c epyoo copoc, aao oox ae ae pceoo coe p peao oox copocx oea ye oyca = 15o coca 0,18102 8,37105 a, a p ye = 20o 0,3210214,49105 a. a eco, ae aopo, opee ooo xapaepc, ec cpe a coooo poea apex ac.

B ooo eop paccapac p cya [10].

1. >> d, e d payc epoa oa; cooe ey aca pae eaey po, x oo e ya, ay ca eccooeo.

2. << d, aa cooea, eoxoo ya cooee yoe poecc ae.

3. l d poeyo cya.

ep apa xopoo ye, ocae papaoa aeo ee cee.

a coooo poea apeo ac p ocoo eepaype opao poopoaa ae ae [13]. Oe ooe ae yaax e ae.

Caa opepooa oea oe poeea a ocoe aoeeco eop ao, coaco oa oopo cpe a coooo poea epoa e = 4 2m, (1.1) e m cpe a coooo poea oey aa, oopo ec epo. a e coooo poea oa m i 4 2m. (1.2) a coooo poea oey opeeec opyo m =, (1.3) 4 2r2Na e r payc oey; N oepa oey.

a o a [13], p ae P = 133,3 a eepaype 0o C oepa oey N 3,61016 c3, payc oey r ~ 108 c. p a ocaoe x ae (1.3) oyae m 1,6102 c = 0,16 , ceoaeo, e = 0,9 ; 0,16 < i < 0,9 .

oo payca d = 0,51 ycoe >> d oo ca oe p > 1 c. a , ao cyae oo e oec.

B paoe [10] pax ao pee ae ae, p oopx a coooo poea oo paa 1 c. ae oye a ocoe o e aoaeco eop peooe, o cee cooe oo epax aoo oao. ae oopoa, aoa copoa coca cooeceo 1,82102; 0,86102; 0,90102 a. a poea epoa p o oe 4 2 paa oe, . e. pepo 56 c. peee ae a ooopa opa e yaaoo e aoo ae pceoo coe, , cey peoea [13], ae ae opepooo oo ca pee, p oopx ee oec ycoe > d.

Oao ec oooc oee opeo oe ae p oox aex pceoo coe. oo ocoyec opyo coooo poea oey e kT m =, (1.4) 4 2r2P oopa oyaec (1.3) p ocaoe ee N = P / kT, e a k = 1,3810 23 /pa ocoa oaa; T acoa eepaypa; P aee aa aocepax.

Peya pacea o o opye c peee (1.1) aoee xapaepx oe a paeop cyca pecae a. 1.1. ae ae pceoo coe peyao oyca c yo = 1520 o. p ocaoe (1.4) x eoxoo epeo. co 90, 60 , e ape cycaeoo ea ee eca a, pacee cooaac eepaypa, paa eepaype aocep a x coax.

a. 1.1 o, o ye a coe 90 poe ycoe < 1 c e oec. C yeee co yeee poceooo ae ea e ce oee yeaec, oca ya a coe 7 , e poceooe aee acao.

Taua 1.apaep oeo a Bcoa H, aee P, Teepaypa m, e, a* T, 90 (1,93,3) 104 212 (8,64,8) 101 4,82,60 (1,22,0) 102 294 (1,91,1) 102 (1,10,6) 107 8,51 3500 (3,21,8) 104 (1,81,1) 106,1 5,58,9 3000 (4,22,6) 104 (2,41,4) 10By opepoooo xapaepa poeeoo pacea eecoopao oyee peya cooca c peyaa, oye ye. Ta, paoe [10] yepaec, o co ooao ae, e ocooe aee e yooce cooe ey ape aca, p pax eepaypax poea epoo oo oao:

kT ( )2, e,i = (1.5) Neee e ap epoa; a aae yooc oap, ea oopoo ccee CCE e peeax 520. aeceo oe peoeyec pa = 10.

Peya pacea o opye (1.5) co, a oopx aa ocaoo co ooaa, pee a. 1.2. ae ee* 1 a = 1,01105 a payp e e, o a. 1.1. opo e oepa epoo N [13]. co 90 , e oa ee aa, ope ya (1.5) o cpae c (1.4) ae peo ae peya.

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