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Because I'm Worth it! Millions of women throughout the Women in state custody face sexual assault world live in conditions of abject by their jailers. Women are punished for deprivation of, and attacks against their having sex outside of marriage or with a fundamental human rights for no other person of their choosing (rather than of their reason than that they are women. family's choosing). Husbands and other male Combatants and their sympathizers in family members obstruct or dictate women's conflicts, such as those in Sierra Leone, access to reproductive health Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, care.4Our duty as activists is to Afghanistan, and Rwanda, have raped expose and denounce as human rights women as a weapon of war with near violations those practices and policies that complete impunity. 1 As a direct silence and subordinate women. We reject result of inequalities found in their countries any law, culture, or religion in which women of origin, women from Ukraine, Moldova, are systematically discriminated against, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, Burma, excluded from political participation and and Thailand are bought and sold, trafficked public life, segregated in their daily lives, to work in forced prostitution, with raped in armed conflict, beaten in their insufficient government attention to protect homes, denied equal divorce or inheritance their rights and punish the traffickers. In rights, killed for having sex, forced to marry, Guatemala, South Africa, and Mexico, assaulted for not conforming to gender women's ability to enter and remain in the norms, and sold into forced labor.work force is obstructed by private Cultural relativism, which argues that there employers who use women's reproductive are no universal human rights and that status to exclude them from work and by rights are culture-specific and culturally discriminatory employment laws or determined, is still a formidable and corrosive discriminatory enforcement of the law. challenge to women's rights to equality and 2Women in Morocco, Jordan, dignity in all facets of their lives.

Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia face The Women's Rights Division of Human government-sponsored discrimination Rights Watch fights against the that renders them unequal before the law - dehumanization and marginalization of including discriminatory family codes that women. We promote women's equal rights take away women's legal authority and place and human dignity.

it in the hands of male family members - and The realization of women's rights is a restricts women's participation in public life. global struggle based on universal human Abuses against women are relentless, rights and the rule of law. It requires all of us systematic, and widely tolerated, if not to unite in solidarity to end traditions, explicitly condoned. Violence and practices and laws that harm women. It is a discrimination against women are global fight for freedom to be fully and completely social epidemics, notwithstanding the very human and equal without apology or real progress of the international women's permission Ultimately, the struggle for.

human rights movement in identifying, Women's human rights must be about making raising awareness about, and challenging women's lives matter everywhere all the time.

impunity for women's human rights In practice, this means taking action to stop violations. discrimination and violence against women.

3Women are unable to depend on the government to protect them from physical violence in the home, with (From: Newsweek. September 22, 2003.) sometimes fatal consequences, including increased risk of HIV/AIDS infection.

7 Divide the text above into logical parts and give them each a title.

8 Prepare a summary of the text.

9 Give a direct translation of the underlined part of the text.

10 Look at the words in bold in the text above and try to explain them.

11 Cross the odd word out.

A. Discrimination Glass ceiling Sexism Rights B. Gender Violence Massacre Humiliation C. Charity Contribution Human rights 12 Make comments on the following statements:

o Unkindness is death to the home. One unkind, unsocial, critical, eternally dissatisfied member can destroy any family.

o Beauty is unbearable, drives us to despair, offering us for a minute the glimpse of an eternity that we should like to stretch out over the whole of time. (Camus Albert, 1913-1960, French Existential Writer).

13 Look through the questions below and share your ideas with your partners:

What do you think governments should do to prevent discrimination in our society What is the role of social workers on this issue What organizations do you know that provide aid and support to women and work for the emotional and physical relief of people involved in troubles What can we do as individuals to help and improve the situation of victims of discrimination 14 Find information about different types of discrimination against women in modern Russia. Prepare a report about this isssue and suggest your own solution to this problem.

Evaluation 1. What have you done in this unit 2. What have you learnt from it 3. What did you enjoy about it 4. Have you any criticisms of it 5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently Family in the Modern World Family is the most important thing in the world.

Diana, Princess of Wales; 1961-.....

1 Express your opinions on the following terms.

Divorce Two-career families Working mothers Single-parent family 2 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of the unit.

3 Express your ideas on the statements below and back up your opinion.

o Healthy families are our greatest national resource o The great advantage of living in a large family is that early lesson of life's essential unfairness.

o Every family is a "normal" family - no matter whether it has one parent, two or no children at all. A family can be made up of any combination of people, heterosexual or homosexual, who share their lives in an intimate (not necessarily sexual) way. Wherever there is lasting love, there is a family.

4 Look at the words and phrases and try to explain their meaning.

industrialized societies irretrievable breakdown of Proposed laws marriage Welfare adultery the rise in the divorce rate socially acceptable break-up of a marriage 5 Divorce is one of the most important problems in our society now.

Read the text below and list two possible reasons for the divorce rate rising sharply since the Second World War.

The History of Divorce in the 20th Century In the past, families tended to rise. The total number in 1990 was over stay together. They felt it was their 153,000, around 2% higher than in duty to do this and that marriage was 1989. Proposed laws may make for life. Divorce was not socially divorce even easier. Couples can now acceptable. It was a commonly held afford the legal side of getting and view that a bad marriage was better surviving a divorce more easily than at than no marriage at all. any time in the past. However, for many In Britain, as in many families it is still an economic disaster industrialized societies, there has as well as being emotionally difficult.

been a steady rise in the numbers of Another possible reason behind the divorces. The Second World War rise in the divorce rate is the changing disrupted a lot of marriages, due to attitude to marriage itself in the 20th enforced separation and hasty century. The traditional Christian marriages which were later regretted. approach to marriage has been against Immediately after the war there were a divorce. As the Church becomes less record number of divorces and the influential in the Western Europe, the proportion of marriages involving a view of marriage as a union for life has divorced partner grew from 2% in weakened. The result is that the break1940 to 32% in 1985. up of a marriage is seen as less of a Legal changes in this century have moral crisis and more as a matter of made it much easier to get a divorce. personal happiness.

The most dramatic change resulted Perhaps the people most affected by from the 1971 divorce law. The law a divorce are the children. According to stated that there needed to be only one current forecasts, about 20% of children reason for a divorce petition the in Britain, for example, will experience irretrievable breakdown of family breakdown by the age of 16.

marriage. This was a much wider There has been growing concern for category than the previous ones of such children, who are usually between cruelty, insanity, desertion or adultery. the ages of five and ten. Recent laws The change in the law had an have indicated that first consideration immediate effect. In 1972 there were should be given to the welfare of the over 119,000 divorces in England and children when making financial Wales and the rate has continued to arrangements after a divorce.

(Catherine Addis. Britain now: British life and institutions. BBC English. 1994.) 6 Look through the questions below and share your ideas with the partners:

Was there a golden age of the family in Russia What role do discipline and moral standards have in Russia Does our country have an equivalent of British Victorian values How does traditional family life differ from Russian family life in the present 7 Divide the text above into logical parts and give each part a title.

8 Prepare a summary of the text.

9 Give a direct translation of the underlined parts of the text.

10 Express your ideas on the following situations A man and a woman living together without getting married A man or a woman living alone and never getting married People marrying two or three times during their lifetime How acceptable are these ways of life in your country 11 Read the article from Newsweek magazine about peoples attitude to the older generation in the USA. Do you agree with the author The Whiniest Generation Yesterday, in the Costco beaches at Normandy and saved the Parking Lot, a seventysomething world. And then, back home after woman was trying to squeeze into years of blood and dirt, they raised a narrow spot in her not-so-narrow bedroom cities, built skyscrapers Cadillac. Between sudden and atom smashers and sent a man whiplash lurches and the sound of to the moon. But today they mostly her side-view mirror clumping drive too slowly. They purchase against the car on her right, she many of the lame products you see wasnt happy. Youre doing on late-night TV. Politicians can fine, I told her, trying to Boy scare a million of them before Scout her into the spot. I am not breakfast, terrify the rest before doing fine! she shouted. It upsets lunch and claim to save Medicare me that I cant pull right in! Like by dinner-time.

it was my fault. Like I was that one said, Get the triple-wide car, How did this generation dear. And I was suddenly filled forged in war, tempered by mortar with the anger of a guy in his mid- fire, flinty and rock-tough in their 30s who is tired of hearing old fatigues and countermans hat Americans complain about things. gets so whiny How do you get from Next stop, Berlin! to Ive They are, I know, the greatest so old and I cant get up generation. They stormed the (From: Newsweek. February 17. 2003.) 12 Discuss the relationship between different generations in Russia.

13 Match the words in the left column with their definitions in the right column. Make the sentences using the new words.

1. Stigma A. an application for legal action to be taken 2. Breadwinner B. children who have their own key to their home because there is no one to let them after school 3. Petition C. living together as husband and wife without being married 4. latch key kids D. a reputation of shame or dishonour 5. Permissive society E. a person supporting a family financially by earning money 6. Cohabiting F. a term given to a society which allows people a great deal of freedom, especially sexual freedom 13 Another issue related to the modern family is called working mothers. Read the text below and try to explain the words in bold.

Working Mothers Guilty Mothers Do mothers who work do so to the the Sex Discrimination Act was a further detriment of their children Can toddlers attempt to protect women in employment, who grow up with full-time, quality day care education and other areas. The do as well as their peers who had full-time Employment Protection Act gave women the moms The debate is nearly as right to maternity leave.

acrimonious as the argument over abortion. In Britain today women make up 44% of And as in that argument, each side in the the workforce, and nearly half the mothers working-moms debate appeals to with children under five years old are in paid emotions, insisting that the issue is clear work. It is not uncommon to find that the and obvious, if only you see it from their mother is the main breadwinner. The side. incentives for women to work or to return to Until relatively recently, most mothers in work are increasing all the time, but there are Western Europe did not take paid work still problems for women who want or have to outside the home. Sometimes women did work.

voluntary work, especially those of the Although there is a greater acceptance of middle classes. However, most womens men taking more of an interest in child care main (unpaid) labour was to run the home and domestic duties, studies show that mens and look after their family. Whether they did and womens roles have not changed as this themselves or supervised other people much as could be expected. In most families doing it was a matter of class and money. working women are still mothers, By entering the labour market, women housekeepers and income providers.

have now altered the face of family life. As There is a stigma attached to the the role of the woman in the family changed, phenomenon of latch key kids. Society so did the role of the man. expects someone usually the mother to Recent legal changes have given women be there. Because of the difficulties of new opportunities. In 1970 the Equal Pay combining the mother role with the demands Act attempted to stop discrimination against of a career, womens work also tends to be women in the field of employment. In 1975 low-paid and irregular.

15 In your group discuss the issue of working mothers in Russia.

16 Write a paragraph about one of the mentioned family problems and put forward your opinion of this problem.

Evaluation 1. What have you done in this unit 2. What have you learnt from it 3. What did you enjoy about it 4. Have you any criticisms of it 5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently Natural and Human Disasters and Disaster Relief The last few years have been the worst period on record for environmental disasters and experts are predicting far worse to come.

P. Fuller, Information Delegate for the International Federation of the Red Cross, 1 Look through the key words given and say which of these issues are environmental and which human Key words:

o deforestation o global warming o the destruction of habitats o the greenhouse effect o endangered species o malnutrition o ethnic cleansing o terrorism o the exploitation of women o natural disasters o famine o overpopulation o flooding o poverty o racial discrimination 2 Which of the disasters given in the following list of key words do you think are:

caused by people made worse by people natural Key words:

o avalanches o forest fires o cyclones o hurricanes o droughts o landslides o earthquakes o volcanic eruption o floods o windstorms 3 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:

o What is your attitude towards the future o Who is most likely to be a victim of natural disasters o What could be the biggest threat to the planet in the future o What effects might this threat have o What natural disasters have happened in the world or in the area you live for the last few months Discuss the causes and results of each of them. What can we do to protect ourselves from events like these 4 Look at the words and phrases underlined in the article India Quake Leaves Legacy of Chaos and try to explain their meaning. After reading the text check whether your ideas were right or wrong.

5 Read the article about the earthquake that happened in some of the regions of India and be ready to give answers to the following questions:

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