limitations contemporary the mainstream disability begging the individual environments created society account personality handicap 1. different ways of thinking about …… 2. caused by a …… social organization 3. historical association with …… and charity 4. excludes them from …… of social activities 5. that incorporates the socially …… aspects 6. the attitudes of …… and the …… of the person 7. takes the focus away from …… 8. looks at disabling …… 9. but …… is something that is imposed on that disability 10. socially created ……… 11. which takes no or little …… of people 6 Answer the following questions using the information from the text above:
o What are the definitions of disability given by Oliver and Barnes and Ann Shearer What do they focus on o Explain the meaning of the following terms used in the text:
- medical model of disability - social model of disability - impairment and disability - disabling environments 7 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:
o Can you identify any common areas of need for disabled people in your country o To what extent are disabled people’s needs being met 8 Imagine that you are a person who has some kind of disability.
Tell about your life using the scheme that is given below.
disability problems actions to get 1. lack of communication rid of problems 2. ……… feelings 1. to commit a 1. frustration dreams suicide 2..…………. 1. to be ‘normal’ 2. ……… 2. … ….
9 Read the statement provided below and give your own comments.
Back up your opinion.
“The people with a disability are human beings in the same way as everyone else and only different to the extent that they suffer from a particular condition.” M. Oliver 10 Read the text that reveals one of the problems of disabled people and be ready to fulfil the tasks given after this text.
Acceptance Needs vary but may include disablement. There is no such thing as financial support, special educational THE DISABLED, there are just people.
facilities, sheltered employment, On leaving hospital and finding support, help in making social contacts, the mantle of ‘disabled’ places firmly and aids and help in the practicalities of upon my unwilling shoulders I entered a daily life. Often the greatest problem is world which was alien, absurd and not the impairment itself, but other ultimately defeating. My weak grasp on people’s attitudes which may then be my identity was no real match for the internalised by the sufferer. massed forces of society who firmly In the following extract, a woman believed themselves as ‘normal’ and with multiple sclerosis explains how she myself just as firmly as ‘abnormal’. I felt about categories of normality after found myself inhabiting a stereotype. I the onset of the disease: became my illness.
I was confused; I still felt (By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.) fundamentally the same. My body was different, I know that all right, but inside it was me. Normality is after all what you know. The male who is very short is normal to himself, it’s other people who make him aware of an ‘abnormality’.
The ugly female is ‘normal’ to herself, it’s the others who make her ‘abnormal’. ’Normality’ and ‘abnormality’ are socially defined.
Disability can and sometimes does interfere with the practical running of a life, but it is the reaction of and nonaction of society which causes 11 Go back to the text, look at the word(s) in bold and try to explain them. Make sentences with these word(s).
12 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the word(s) only once.
contacts a stereotype the practical running employment the massed forces educational alien unwilling the practicalities 1. interfere with …… of a life 2. sheltered …… 3. help in making social …… 4. entered a world which was …… 5. special …… facilities 6. inhabiting …… 7. was no real match for …… 8. help in …… of daily life 9. firmly upon my ……shoulders 13 Make your comments on the statement underlined in the text. Do you agree or disagree with these words In pairs discuss the problem considered in the text “Acceptance” and think what can be done to improve the attitudes to disability Make a plan of your ideas and develop some strategies on how to improve the situation in our society and change the stereotypes which exist. Be ready to present your opinion in class.
What would you say about educatind people attitudes 14 Read the passage about the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act that was brought in as anti-discriminatory legislation in the UK in 1995.
However, before reading the text, try to predict what this Act could be about. Read to check whether your predictions were right or wrong.
While reading fill in the gaps with the appropriate word or phrase.
discriminate access unlawful polices impairment disabled employers learning insurance disability treat second-rate day-to-day sensory cancer law The 1995 Disability Discrimination Act In the 1995 Disability 10……. for providers of goods, services Discrimination Act ……1…. is defined and facilities to ……11…… against a as long-term physical or mental …… disabled person either by refusing to 2…….. that substantially affects the serve disabled customers or providing ability to carry out normal ……3…….. them with ……12…….. services. All activities. This includes physical and goods and services provided to the ………4……... impairments, …… public are covered, including health, 5…… disabilities and mental health ……13….., legal services, and sport and conditions lasting 12 months or more, or leisure facilities. …14……. and likely to recur. ‘Severe disfigurements’ practices which have the effect of and progressive conditions such as …… excluding disabled people have to be 6…., HIV and multiple sclerosis are also changed, for example a restaurant can’t included. The Act means it is against the refuse a person with a guide dog because …7…... for employers with twenty or they do not allow animals. If a …15…..
more stuff to ……8…… disabled people person needs a helper, a shop must less favourably than others and requires change a policy of only allowing one …9…… to make ‘reasonable person in a changing room at a time.
adjustments’ to work practices and People who sell or let properties can’t premises to overcome barriers to unreasonably discriminate against employment. The Act also makes it …… disabled people. Schools and colleges must provide information on their government to set minimum criteria for facilities for disabled students. The law disabled access to new buses, trains and also provides a right of …..16…….. to taxis.
railways and bus stations and allows the (By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.) 15 Explain the meaning of the word(s) given in the box before the passage. Make up sentences with these words.
16 Translate the extract in written form using a dictionary if necessary.
17 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups.
Is there any similar anti-discriminatory legislation in your country Does it really have an impact on the places you visit – colleges, schools, sport centers, and workplaces Are people familiar with the requirements of this legislation What is really done in your country for disabled people What changes are needed to improve the life of disabled people 18 Look through newspapers and magazines or use other sources available and try to find information on how the problem of disabled people is dealt with in your society. Be ready to make a presentation about this issue in class. Compare the situations and the ways of solving the problems of disabled people in your country with those in other countries.
19 Write a composition describing your life as if you’ve just been made redundant because of your disability. Write about the importance of social status and being part of society. To what extent has your life changed o What services are provided for disabled people in your country o What organizations are in charge of providing and arranging support services for groups of people with different kinds of disabilities Fill in the table:
Organisations Services Government ……..
Local authorities ……..
Voluntary organizations ……… 20 Read the passage about the problems of educational provision for disabled people and about care and support services that exist in the UK. Be ready to answer the questions that are asked at the end of the passage.
Education and care and support services There are disadvantages and If people with a disability are advantages of educating children to lead a full life in the and young disabled people in community, practical help and separate schools. A girl with support are needed. These services restricted movement in one side are provided either by health tells how the cruelty of other girls authorities or by local social in school led her to ask if she services departments. Services could attend a special school. She provided by local authorities can says that in the special school: vary from area to area but are likely to include the following: of It was much easier to make daily living and organise aids and friends and I didn’t feel an adaptations for the home;
outsider any more. Everyone had a disability and no one was self- • social workers providing conscious about it. They treated advice, information and each other as human beings and counselling;
you could be friends with anyone. • home care stuff to help with personal care at home;
This young woman is however • meals-on-wheels;
aware of her loss of contact with • occupational therapists who the outside world. Another woman provide advice on the who suffered from a disease called practicalities brittle bones tells of her isolation • day-centers offering a variety until she went to a boarding school of educational, therapeutic for girls with disabilities. Here she and recreational facilities.
learnt the joy of sharing doubts and fears.
All of these services may be charged for, although usually on a means-tested basis.
(By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.) 21 Explain the meaning of the words and phrases underlined in the passage ‘Education and Care and Support Services’. Make up sentences using these words and phrases.
22 Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases. Complete the sentences given below filling in the gaps with the appropriate word or phrase. There is one extra word that you do not need to use.
a) Employment Training g) supervision register b) special hospitals h) residential care c) health care i) disability d) a key worker j) a care plan e) voluntary organizations k) short-term care f) legislation l) day care centers 1. In Britain, ……… is provided partly by the National Health Service (NHS) and partly by private medicine.
2. She gets a ……… pension from the government.
3. In the 1990s the program of ……… was issued by the British government for training people who have been unemployed for six months or more to help them get jobs.
4. ……… is a system of care for old people who are unable to look after themselves at home, need nursing or other professional care which their families cannot provide.
5. Where appropriate, mentally ill people are provided with accommodation in ………, local authority accommodation, or homes run by private or …………….
6. Local authority services include ………, support in the home, the provision of ………, and help with the other activities outside the home.
7. Patients who have been discharged from hospitals may be placed on a ………..
8. Under the Care Program Approach, mentally ill people should be assessed by specialist services, ………, and ……… should be appointed for each patient.
23 Answer the following questions and share your ideas with your partner.
o What are the advantages and disadvantages of organising special educational institutions and educational programs for disabled people o Is there any special educational provision for disabled people in your country o Compare the system of educational provision and care and support services described in the passage with those that exist in your country.
o What can be done to improve the system of services for disabled people 24 Use any sources of information available (newspapers, magazines or Internet resources) and carry out a project on any of the problems suggested below. You may fulfill this task in pairs or groups and consider the problem using the example of any English-speaking country.
o What educational and training opportunities are available for people with learning disabilities in your country o What kind of specialist assistance is provided for mentally disordered people in any English-speaking countries o What special hospitals or medical institutions for mentally disordered people are there in your country What problems do these institutions experience o What are the problems that people with learning disabilities suffer in special hospitals o What are the main problems that disabled people experience being out of work (emotional, financial, the problem of socialization and etc.) o Speak on the organizations that deal with problems of employment of disabled people and their training.
o What are the reasons for launching a special system of financial provision for disabled people o Describe the system of financial support in your country. Speak on the main problems that disabled people come across.
25 Write a composition giving your opinion on one of the statements below. Write your composition in 120 - 180 words.
o The line from ‘normality’ to ‘abnormality’ is a continuum with no sharp cut-off point.
o The greatest need for many people is to be accepted and not rejected as somehow ‘abnormal’.
o Schools could help young people by extending community projects and encouraging young people to get to know disabled people.
o Many fears would be eliminated if disabled people were further integrated into the communities.
o There is a tendency for the media to overdo the ‘tragedy’ aspect of disability. The media could play a role in changing attitudes by portraying people with a disability in everyday situations, leading a normal life.
Evaluation 1. What have you done in this unit 2. What have you learnt from it 3. What did you enjoy about it 4. Have you any criticisms of it 5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently Discrimination against Women:
is it Really a Great Problem It's only women who are not really quite women at all, frivolous women who have no idea, who neglect repairs.
Duras, Marguerite, French Author, Filmmaker ………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Discrimination against women – what is it Think about the topic and fill in the drawing below.
Discrimination against women 2 What is your attitude to this problem (discrimination against women) Does it really exist in morden society 3 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of this unit.
4 Study these survey results (UK, 2003). How would you answer the survey question given below Discuss your responses within your group.
Do you think it is easier to be a man or a woman Females Males To be a man 30% 21% To be a woman 59% 65% 5 Ask five women and five men outside the classroom the survey question and present your results to the class.
6 You are going to read a text which contains examples of the discrimination against women in different parts of the world. Some parts from the text have been removed.
A. In the U.S.A., students discriminate and attack girls in school who are lesbian, bi-sexual, or transgendered, or do not conform to male standards of female behavior.
B. We live in a world in which women do not have basic control over what happens to their bodies. Millions of women and girls are forced to marry and have sex with men they do not desire.
C. Men in Pakistan, South Africa, Peru, Russia, and Uzbekistan beat women in the home at astounding rates, while these governments alternatively refuse to intervene to protect women and punish their batterers or do so haphazardly and in ways that make women feel culpable for the violence.
D. Doctors and government officials disproportionately target women from disadvantaged or marginalized communities for coercive family planning policies.
E. Arguments that sustain and excuse these human rights abuses - those of cultural norms, "appropriate" rights for women, or western imperialism - barely disguise their true meaning: that women's lives matter less than men's.