PEOPLE AND ACTIVITIES E E ETSTU Publishing HouseE ÁÁÊ Ø13(Aí)ÿ 923 M63 Peöeíçeíò Äoêòop ôèëoëoãè÷ecêèx íayê, ïpoôeccop oïoâa È. M.
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ïocoá. / Aâòopû cocò.: E. M. Êoëoìeéöeâa, T. Ï. Ïeêøeâa, M. H. Maêeeâa.
Taìáoâ: Èçä-âo Taìá. ãoc. òexí. yí-òa, 2001. 160 c.
ISBN 5-8265-01103 Ïocoáèe âêëþ÷aeò ÿçûêoâoé è ýêcòpaëèíãâècòè÷ecêèé ìaòepèaë ïo paçâèòèþ êoììyíèêaáeëüíûx íaâûêoâ â oáëacòè ìeíeäæìeíòa, ìapêeòèíãa, peêëaìû.
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ËÞÄÈ È ÄEßTEËÜHOCTÜ ×ACTÜ 2 AHÃËÈÉCÊÈÉ ßÇÛÊ Peêoìeíäoâaío Ó÷eíûì coâeòoì yíèâepcèòeòa â êa÷ecòâe y÷eáío-ìeòoäè÷ecêoão ïocoáèÿ Taìáoâ Èçäaòeëücòâo TÃTÓ 2001 Unit # 5 GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT This unit deals with high-tech innovations and management. Information isolated is information denied. A fact. An idea. An opinion. Without communication, there is no action.
Communication doesn't just happen. It takes the right business tool.
Task 1 Read, translate and discuss the following text Global communications The world is entering an era of unlimited processing power and bandwidth (the ability of a network to carry information). The growth of the Internet and the consequent demand for more bandwidth has led to a frenzied race to develop and deploy new technologies.
Global communications markets are going through the greatest transformation since the invention of the telephone and the rise of government-controlled monopolies. Around the globe, deregulation means that entrenched telephone monopolies are facing fierce new competition. The growth of Internet commerce and the rise of data traffic means that new broadband multimedia networks are being built to supplant voice-only networks. New fiber-optic cables are being laid across the world's oceans with multiple landing points at the same time that low-earth-orbit satellites are being launched and deployed to drop T-lines out of the sky.
Transatlantic cables and all other new cables are designed to carry more than voice.
Voice traffic is shrinking as an overall percentage of all communications traffic. Current demand is for new and improved Internet Protocol (IP) networks that will handle voice, data, audio and video - the Holy Grail du jour of telephony.
The world's global communications network is a patchwork quilt of terrestrial and satellite links and undersea cables that is constantly changing. Quality and costs vary dramatically. But that will improve.
Task A Pre-reading questions:
1 Have you ever read about digital office devices 2 What kind of office device do you know 3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of office devices B Read and translate the text.
Renovating The Workplace With Digital Technology By now we know the revolution will never abate. In the next few years, as advances in digital technology continue to emancipate information from the printed page, the nature of work and our notion of the job will change profoundly. It stands to reason that the office as the place where work is performed, information shared and knowledge created - will undergo a similar, and no less starting, metamorphosis. In fact, a brave new breed of digital technologies has already begun to transform the familiar office landscape from a highly structured, physically constrained workplace into a virtually unbounded collaborative space.
Today, digital office devices are converting information historically delivered in the form of newspapers, magazines and books into bits - electronic strings of 1s and 0s that can be zapped around the globe in a heartbeat. Hewlett-Packard, for example, recently introduced the HP 9100C Digital Sender. This workgroup communication device digitally compresses text and images from product brochures, bills of lading or office correspondence into electric files, which can be transmitted to colleagues via e-mail.
Digital Sender also allows users to send the electronic files to networked fax machines, PCs and printers.
Digital Sender is only one component of Hewlett-Packard's broader vision of the digital office of the future. This vision is based on a concept called utility computing, in which the flow of digital information is effortless and accessible - and as inconspicuous as the electrical current. Ultimately, Hewlett-Packard envisions infrastructure so pervasive and dependable that it will melt imperceptibly into the office landscape.
Xerox's digital office strategy is no less innovative or compelling. At the company's Palo Alto Research Center, researches have developed a community-based approach to the design and use of digital technology for the office. Xerox's Document Centre solutions allow workgroups to perform digital copying, printing, faxing and scanning from the desktop.
"Documents - whether paper or digital - are among the most important intellectual assets a company has," notes Tom Durkin, vice president of strategy and business development, Xerox Office Business Unit. "They can capture the essence of an idea, provide direction to a group or articulate an organization's hopes and dreams for the future. Through our Document Centre systems, we've essentially reinvented the hallway copier as a portal through which documents pass into and out of a broader community of users." Novell is helping transform the office from a stationary place centered around the desktop computer and telephone into an intelligent networked environment that enables individuals to do business anywhere - at any time. GroupWise, Novell's premier network collaboration solution for business professionals, demonstrates the company's commitment to this vision of the future. GroupWise offers individuals a range of information capabilities, including document management, personal calendaring, group scheduling, email, and Web access.
Whatever shape digital offices assume in the future, one thing is certain: Tomorrow's collaborative spaces will invite a broader, more diverse community of individuals to actively participate in the creation, revision and application of knowledge. It is important to remember, however, that with the virtually unlimited potential of such a dynamic work environment comes a whole new set of questions and challenges concerning information management.
From the user's perspective, only those people who are willing to share some of the information that has historically resided on their desktops will thrive in this new environment. Individuals imprisoned in the decades-old, desktop-centric mindset will no doubt struggle to adapt. Managers accustomed to convening with staff in the cosy confines of conference rooms will need to suspend - at least occasionally - their biological need for physical presence, recognizing the substantial benefits of collaborating in cyberspace.
Perhaps most important, as desktop computers, hallway copiers and handheld devices evolve into two-way portals to the world of information, business leaders will need to weigh judiciously those decisions concerning who is entitled to access what information, and how they are allowed to use it.
C Answer the questions:
1 What is the function of HP 9100C Digital Sender 2 What is meant by a utility computing concept 3 What is peculiar to GroupWise 4 What are the challenges of information management TASK 3 FIGURE OUT THE ORDER OF THE PARAGRAPHS OF THIS SCRAMBLED TEXT "COMPUTERS" A By the 1990s, systems that can be trained to read handwriting may be created.
The new computers will understand not just your voice, but your preferences. They will be able to scan and store all kinds of information-books, letters, scribbled notes, TV images, photos, electronic messages, etcetera.
B No more. As trends analyst John Naisbitt is fond of pointing out the "information float" has vanished. Now, intercontinental cables and communication satellites can move information long distance so fast that they often outstrip more conventional, short-distance communications. Modern communications move information at literally the speed of light.
And as any student of elementary physics knows, that's as fast as it will get.
C Managers who won't sit down at a telecommunications work station but insist on dictating to a secretary, who takes short-hand, transcribes her notes, and passes them back for checking, simply aren't communicating as fast as they could. Once on their way, electronic messages that are slowed by busy lines or delayed as they wait for capacity to open up a major switch also do not average anything like the speed of light. Integration is thus the key buzzword in telecommunications circles today. No more can personal computers operate as "islands of computing unable to communicate." D The ultimate, perhaps, is a computer that can understand continuous speech patterns, regardless of who is speaking, and translate an unlimited vocabulary into typed words of action. It might dip into the corporate data base, for example, and pull out sales numbers organized by salesman, by quarter and by region-without anyone typing in the commands. Such multiple-speaker, general purpose speech recognition systems may be no more than 15 years off.
E As recently as the mid-19th century, when telegraph lines crossing the North American continent quickly spread the news of President Lincoln's assassination throughout the country, the absence of transatlantic cables meant Europe did not learn of the event for nearly a week.
F If the executive wants data out of a file, he simply touches "file cabinet" on his screen's main menu. Up pops a picture of a file cabinet. When he touches the drawer, it opens to reveal the folder. To add, modify or transmit information, the executive touches another spot in the screen, then talks into a built-in microphone. His dictation is stored on a digital disk from which he can retrieve it for transcription into the word processor.
G For the bulk of human history, communication has crept along at a snail's pace.
Ancient South American Indians advanced it by organizing elaborate relays of runners to carry important messages. Elsewhere, seafaring technology allowed many cultures to send word by ship. And beacon lights combined with a dash by horseback heralded the beginning of the American war of independence against Britain.
H Today, a personal computer or a terminal connected to a mainframe computer needs to serve as the hub of a complex information system and should include at least the capability to retrieve and transfer information. Added features, such as decision-support software, word-processing, calendars, project management, and even teleconferencing at least with voice if not with video - are being added.
I Amid all the marketing glitter, there is plenty of substance to this technological battle. That's because, while the universal limit on speed cannot be violated, the new technologies promise to improve what might be called the net effective rate of communications.
J Penzias envisages the day when the executive desktop will be an integrated information system. "If you find a quote in a magazine you like, you should simply be able to circle it and have it immediately stored by the computer, "he says, "regardless of whether you're sitting to the left or to the right of your desk. If you have an important discussion on the phone, it should be immediately transcribed and stored".
K Fibre-optic communication is perhaps the epoch-making technical accomplishment of the 20th century in the field of communications.
Task 4 Memorize the following vocabulary:
to obsess, to captivate, to infuriate, to dominate, millennium, underestimation, eventually, ultimately, dazzling, amazing, to launch a quest, information-processing machines, a calculator, elaborate, to dub, to generate venture capital, to toss, a programmable machine/device, breakthrough, to outline, ingenious, contraption, controversy, to crack secret codes, to ponder, versatile, prescient, acolyte, feasibility.
Task 5 Read and translate the text from the magazine "NewsweekExtra", Winter 1997-THE COMPUTER By Steven Levy As the century comes to a close, the technology that obsesses us, captivates us, infuriates us and dominates us is the computer. But ultimately, this most amazing of inventions won't be seen as an artifact of the old millennium but the defining force of the one just dawning. Do you really think that we're already into the computer age That's a gross underestimation of what the computer will eventually do to change our world, our lives and perhaps the nature of reality itself.
Underestimation, as it turns out, has been a constant in the brief but dazzling history of this amazing machine. Surprisingly, the tale begins in the 19-th century, when Charles Babbage, an English mathematician born in 1791, launched a lifelong quest to build information-processing machines – first a calculator called the Difference Engine and then a more elaborate programmable device dubbed the Analytical Engine. He lacked – among other things – electricity, transistors, keyboards and Bill Gates. Yet in the 1830s he came astonishingly close to producing something very much like the computers that would be celebrated decades after he died. Unfortunately, his skill at innovation was not matched by an ability to generate venture capital, and his plans were tossed into the unforgiving core dump of history.
The idea of a programmable machine that performed humanity's mental labors reappeared in the 1930s. Specifically, the breakthrough came at the hands of another eccentric English mathematician, Alan Turing, who outlined how it was possible to build something that could perform virtually any mathematical task that one could describe. His proof involved an ingenious imaginary device that would be known as the Universal Turing Machine – essentially, a machine that could duplicate the work of any other machine. Even if the "machine" were a human calculator. Turing knew what the rest of us are still trying to wrap our minds around – such a contraption, a computer, can do anything. It's an invention that breeds invention itself.
But it took a war to bring about the physical devices that would be known as the first real computers. (A small but noisy controversy among computer historians involves whether a device constructed in 1939 by John Atanasoff and his student at Iowa State University, Clifford Berry, deserves the true mantle of First Electronic Computer.) In England Turing himself worked on machines that helped crack the secret codes used by the Germans. In Germany itself, a wizard named Konrad Zuse was working on that country's computing effort but never fully realized his ideas. And in America, a Hungarian genius named John von Neumann – perhaps the premier mathematician of this centurywas pondering mechanical devices to help perform the calculations required for the Manhattan Project. A chance meeting at a train platform in 1944 led him to a team of scientists working at the University of Pennsylvania to create ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), which many people consider the true Adam of computers.
Designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly to help crunch numbers for artillerytarget estimates, this device used 18, 000 vacuum tubes and cost $400, 000.
Von Neumann was fascinated, and he worked with the ENIAC people to take computing to the next level: EDVAC, which was essentially a blueprint for the machines that followed: memory, stored programs and a central processor for number crunching.