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020101 , 060108 , 020201 , 010701 , 020301 , 020401 .

2005 1 epeo ayo-eoec Coeo xecoo ayea pooo 7 o 22 ap 2004 oa Cocae: Xou A.M., oapo E.., Auoeo ..

Hay peaop a. aepo aaeco x, poeccop B.. Ceeee eo-eoecoe ocoe oooeo a aepe oe x xecoo ayea Bopoecoo ocyapceoo yepcea.

Paccapac copeee pecae o cpoe eeca.

ocoe peoeyec cyeo 1 ypca xecoo ayea, a ae cyeo pyx ececex ayeo, yax eopaecy x.

2 CTPOEHE BEECTBA Cpoee aoa a o ceac ae, o ao coco pa epoo, opyax eo oooepo pocpace, a po, co oepe, ae ce poo epo (poe ooo ooo aoa oopoapo, y oopoo epoo e). B aee ye oaao, o eo epo (aee) opee xece coca eeo.

Ocae cpoe aoa ae c oe Peepopa *, oopa epe a oceo oepea cepea ye. peoea aeapa oe cpoe aoa a ocoaa a cepee o oye -aca oae ooo o, peya oopoo oaa, o oco -ac cooo poa co oy, e e paeop coeo e. oo aoe x oeco (~ 1 a 10000) peo ee paeop e o o 120-1500. o peo peooe, o o c acca aoa coeppoaa oe ao oee c oo ooc.

B oe oe Peepopa coac cey ooe:

- epe aoa axoc ooeo apeoe po, oe oopoo ecpao ee oea ceo aoa;

- opy pa o pyo opa paac epo, oee co oopx pao ooeoy apy pa;

- ca epocaecoo pe ey po epoa ypaoeea epoeo co pae epoo.

Moe Peepopa aco aa aeapo o aao c paee ae opy coa. Oao o oe poope a ocox ooe:

- epo, a ca pya apea aca p pae opy ooeoo pa oe ya ep e epoax o. yee ep eeo oo pec ocooy yee payca pae, o oeo oe pepa cyecoae aoa;

- epepoe eee ep aco pae oo cooecoa epep oec cepa ye. Oao aoe oece cep e ea xapaep, o c* pec Peepop - o pyex yex oac paoaoc cpoe aoa. Bepe ocyec cyccee pepae cax ooo pa eeo p oec ooa -ac.

eecye o poeccax aoe, cax c pepc (caoopa) eee ep.

cpa eoca oe Peepopa opeeeo epe yaoc H.opy *. He papa opoo ce ocya opa, pee oo ocooe ooee eo eop o aoa ep epoa aoe. Cy oo ooe aaac o, o ycooo coco epoa eo ep aoe oa aoaa, o ec pa oo opeeee (cpee) ae. B o cyae, peoo op, ep epoo yac e ye.

aoo peoe opeeee ocoa, pee ceo eae cep cyca aoa oopoa. poe oo, oy pee o eco ooee M. aa** o o, o yee ooee ceoo ep pocxo e epepo, a opeee op aa:

, (1) = e acoa ye, a h ocoa aa (h=6,626. 10-34 . c).

py coa, ce (epoae o) ae ee opycype coca (coco ac) aca cea, oaaa aee ope ep ao, a aaa ooo.

Ha ocoa oo H. op peoo, o oe oeca e epoa aoe, e m acca epoa, eo co poc, r payc op, oe pa oo opeeee (aoe) ae:

= = D, (2) e n - oe eoe co o 1 o (oee o aao a a = D o co), - ocoa aa opyax pyooo e (ae aaec ocoo paa).

paee (2) ec oco ao ocyao opa. Ho ce copoc epoa payca eo op aoe oopoa eoxoo o opoe ypaee c e e eec, H. op aece aooo cooa accecoe ypaee paeca epoeo epocpeeo c paaec ac:

* Hc op ac ac , aypea Hoeeco pe. Coa epoaay aoy eop aoa.

** Mac a ac ee -eope, papaoa eop eooo ye, oopa ocya ocoo coa eop o aoa ep.

=, (3) e - epoea ca paaec ac, a - epo cpeea ca, opeeea yooc ca pe epoa pa.



Pea coeco ypae (2) (3), H. op c aee payca epo op aoe oopoa, copoc epoa a o ope , aoe, oy ep epoa:

=. (4) Paccaoe aee ep epoa a epo ope (oa ocec a aaa opoco) yoeopeo coacyec c cepeao aeo epe c epoa c po, o oc pyo oyaoo eop opa*.

Puc. 1 pou epuu empoa amoe oopoa (a) u uuu cnempa uyeu (), coomemcmyue empo nepexoa amoe.

* y o oy ooy: eop opa o oeea, cpea a a aoo, a ocae ee - acceco.

Ceye opa ae, o-epx, a a oo ep epoa aoe oopoa: a () oaae, o epo ca c po, pe pooc o c opeeec oeco eec ep, pao 13,6 B. Bo-opx, ceye opa ae a aeae ypae, oopo axoc poeee. o oa ae, o p cooe epoy ep, o epexo ocooo (caoapoo) coco - oyeoe (pc 1).

p o c poco e n ypo ep epoa pacooe epaoepo: c yeee ae n pacco ey ypo copaac, a p ox eo aex ypo paec cac (a cao ee cpeoc ypoe ocaec). p oce ep epoa yeoo ypo (E=0) c epoa c po papaec, .e. pocxo oa aoa oopoa:

epo caoc coo.

p opae oyeoo coco caoapoe, ep yaec ea o op ep (aa) cpyec e oo cepa ye aoa oopoa.

coae, eop opa coa yoeopeo oc oo ao oopoa oaaac e coco pacpocpa ee o a ooepoe ao. ooy ce a eope opa acyae oxa aoo exa.

B 1927 oy y e po* oaa, o ec epoae o oy oaa oopeeo coca o ac, o epo (a ae a pya yac aca) oy e ooe coca. o ooee oyo aae opycypo-oooo yaa, cppyeoe coooee e po:

=, (5) e m - acca ac, - ee copoc, - a o, oopa oae p e ac ( acoc epoa aoe).

Bocec aepac a . eccoo . epepo a cepeao oaaa ooa ppoa epoa ye oye oopcaeco eeo ac yo epoo.

Peya aoo oye acpoa a ooace e oepecx oe, oope pecppoa acy y o* y e po ec payc , aypea Hoeeco pe. aac aoo exao, opoca cpoe pa, pacpocpaee epoax o.

aa epoo. o a oa paoa apa, oepaa ooy ppoy epoa. o pacooe oe a paoo ape a paccaa a o oooo poecca.

Teep, cooca ece coooe: ; = (e c co = = poc cea ayye) , oo oy ypaee e po, ec eco copoc cea oca copoc oo yeoc oea:

=.

Oco aoo exa aoe 1925-1926 .. B. eeepo . peepo*. a eop opaac a a ocox ooe:

- ooo xapaep e epoa;

- epooc, cacec eo oca oee epoa.

O ooo xapaepe e epoa ye o caao; e eee cyeceo opoe ooee, ecoe aye o aae pa eopeeeoc eeepa. B e o aaec Puc. 2 Tpaemopu capa, poeoo u aaa cucme oopuam co copocm Veco, o apo-pe, oa e eo c peea oo acc ooe coca oxo a opo a, oopa ac ) ee copoc (yc m oy opeee ocaoo oo.

pepo oe cy pace paeop capa (pc 2), eeeo c aao copoc o, cooecye aay oopa a pae. Toa ooee capa o oe pee, .e.

x(t) y(t) ooc opeec, ec ec aae yco:

* Bepep eeep ec ee -eope, aypea Hoeeco pe. poe aoo exa paoa oac eo eop o, epo e.

p peep ac -eope, aypea Hoeeco pe. poe aoo exa papaoa eop oye, a ae aeaecy eop ea.

.

Ceoaeo, paeop capa oe oo paccaa peee epeax ypae, eax ecx aoo Hoa.

B pope eo oco e a. aoa exaa e pa eeepa aaae opeeee opae a aae yco ao aa.

Oa opypoo pa eopeeeoc ac, o oopeeoe epee aaoo ooe copoc ac e oe poeeo oo. Ceoaeo, paeop poac coaco py eopeeeoc ooao opee eooo, .. e aa ooae aae yco. Cece oo paeop ac caoc pao, a o oaao a pc.3. Caoe oee, o oo caa o e ac, o oa epeeaec yp eoopo oac pocpaca ee copoc, ea oopo aea eoopx peeax.





Puc. 3 Booe mpaemopuu capa c emoo onpeeeu aau ycouu.

pya, oee oa, opypoa pa eopeeeoc ac, o aoo e cyecy ae ap epeex, p coeco opeee oopx eeo oae oea oa.

Hapep:. ec yc = oopaa c y apaepa cce, ca ey coo ppx x - eopeeeoc epeo eopeeeoc, .e.

x; h- ocoa aa. Ta opao, e epeee, ec o ca ey coo pee coooee, aac cope epee. Ec pye copee epeee, apep ep pe. a:

, (6) (6) Heoxoo oepy, o oa (eopeeeoc) epe ec pa ooee e ac o ooc epex popo. o oo oc a ceye pepe. Ec xo opee oopay yec ac, o o c oo aoo-o ye (aa cea) oapy y acy pocpace. Ho e ca eeo oy oeee ac ee copoc ( yc) ec. Ta opao, a oceoaex epe py a pya, oa eopeeeoc yx epe e opeeeo epae ae.

Ceye e y, o p eopeeeoc paoae pope caoc ecyece apope. Hapep, eopeeeoc epe ooe acc 1 , ec oa opeee copoc cocaa 1 /c, paa peo 10-34, o ec oo ao eo ( 1021 pa ee payca epoa). Hapo, eopeeeoc opeee oopa epoa aoe oopoa ee opo 10-10, o coocao c paepo caoo aoa.

cxo pa eopeeeoc, eoxoo oop e o e epoa o opeeeo ope, a o epooc oapye epoa ao oac pocpaca (aoa).

Teep oo epe oooy ypae, peee oopoo ooe opee oe e, cae c oeee epoa aoe (eo ep, epooc eo axoe aoo oee). Taoe ypaee o peoeo . peepo, e pexepy epoy oy o peca e a aaeo ooo y, ace o oopa pexepoo pocpaca =f(x,y,z). Booa y ocae xapaep e epoa aoe, ee aco aa ayo epox o ayo epooc pea epoa ao pocpace *.

* aypea Hoeeco pe o e P. ea oo cox cye cea opyee aee: e aec, ceo oy caa, o aoo exa o e oae. y pay yo oa a, o o e oe cee peca, a epo oe po ooe coca o o a pexepa epoa oa. Oao, ec cooa aapa ooo exa peeo oee epoa aoe, o oyaec peya ooc coacyc c cepea ae o cce aoy exay aco aa ooo exao Ta opao, ao e poac aoo exae paac oo ypaee peepa, oopoe pae e y e po, o ao Hoa acceco exae. a ao Hoa, o ypaee eooo ec ax-o oee ox ooe. Ho oo oe oyeo, cxo opeeeo aao ey oo ypae ypae exa.

paee peepa ec epea ypaee acx poox:

- = +, (7) = + + e - cy opx poox ooo y o oopaa x,y,z; m - acca epoa; E - oa ep epoa;

V - oeaa ep, ac ye oo oopa: V(x,y,z).

aoa oopoa oeaa ep eceoo epoa =- ).

paa eo epocaeco ep ( ooy ypaee (7) pe :

+ + =. (8) paee peepa oo oy ye pecoo oopa peeoo oooo ypae oca oee epoa e eo coooe e po (5) o oe-ace.

oo paccop ooepy oy, pacpocpayc o oc x (pc. 4):

=. (9) Puc. * - oepaop aaca, oop oaae, ae ec yo poea a ye ( a o cyae ), o oy eoopy pyy y.

Teep o ypaee yo a poepepoa*:

=- =-. (10) = oca ca, oy:

=. (11) oa ep E paa cye oeao ep V e = eco ep. Ceoaeo, T=E-V - =. oc e cooecye ocao (11) oy:

Puc. 5 yuu (a) u 2 () pauax amoa * a eco, epa pooa cooecye copoc ee (py) y, a opa ycope (paec pe y). eo pa y opeee co oyo, yaaxc a paax aoa, o, a ye oaao ae, cooecye opeeeo ep epoa aoe.

=- -. (12) Oca, epexo pexepoy pocpacy (x,y,z), oy ooe ypaee peepa:

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