ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ COMPUTING Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов 1 курса дневного отделения, обучающихся по специальностям:
010501– Прикладная математика и информатика 010502– Прикладная информатика ( по областям ) 010503– Математическое обеспечение и администрирование информационных систем ГСЭ.Ф.01 ВОРОНЕЖ 2005 2 Утверждено научно-методическим советом ф-та РГФ (протокол № 5 от 28 июня 2005 г.) Составители: ВоронинаЕ.В.
Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.
Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие является частью создаваемого накафедре английского языка учебно-методического комплекса для студентов факультета прикладной математики, информатики и механики и предназначено для студентов 1 курса.
Учебно-методическое пособие состоит из пяти разделов, объединенных по тематическому принципу. Каждый раздел включает всебя широкий спектр упражнений по конкретной тематике, а также заданий, направленных на пополнение словарного запасастудентов и развитие навыков устной речи.
Представленный материалпосвящен таким аспектам информационных технологий, как использование компьютеров в современном мире, основные типы компьютерных систем, аппаратное и программное обеспечение. Пятый раздел содержит обзорные упражнения по пройденному материалу.
Грамматический материал методических указаний охватывает систему времен английского глагола в действительном и страдательном залогах, а также артикли и степени сравнения прилагательных.
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для практических занятий по английскому языку и может быть использовано в качестве основного материала к курсу как нааудиторных занятиях, так и в ходе индивидуальной работы студентов.
Unit I. Everyday uses of computers 1. Many common English words have different meanings when they are used to talk about computers. Look at the pictures and study the words.
2. Use the correct forms of the words in the pictures to complete the sentences. Use each word twice.
Common usage 1. Could you open the window It’s hot in here.
2. My is 223 Oak Street.
3. I went to the store to buy a hammer.
4. The ran into its hole.
5. I’m hungry, but I don’t see anything I like on the.
6. Marilyn Monroe is a movie from the 1950s.
7. When I was in California, I went every day.
8. He accidentally his car into a tree.
Computer usage 1. My computer. Can you fix it 2. Plug the into the keyboard.
3. He is always the net for the later news.
4. Open the other web page in a new.
5. An is a small picture on a computer screen.
6. The is the machinery inside a computer.
7. First, click on an item in the.
8. Do you know her e-mail.
3. Match the computer terms (1-8) with their meanings (a-h).
1. surf a. a list of choices 2. window b. tom@ mymail.com, for example 3. hardware c. a square area on a computer screen 4. icon d. when a computer stops working 5. mouse e. a picture symbol 6. menu f. explore the Internet 7. address g. move this with your hand to move the arrow on the screen 8. crash h. computer parts 4. Computers are everywhere nowadays. Here is the text about some of their possible uses.
Computers can help students perform mathematical operations and solve difficult questions. They can be used to access the Internet, teach courses such as computer-aided design, language learning, programming, mathematics, etc.
PCs (personal computers) are also used for administrative purposes: for example, schools use databases and word processors to keep records of students, teachers and materials.
Race organizers and journalists rely on computers to provide them with the current positions of riders and teams in both the particular stages of the race and in the overall competition.
Workstations in the race buses provide the timing system and give up-to-theminute timing information to TV stations. In the press room several PCs give realtime information on the state of the race. Computer databases are also used in the drug-detecting tests for competitors.
Computers store information about the amount of money held by each client and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial transactions at high speed. They also control the automatic cash dispensers which, by the use of a personal coded card, dispense money to clients.
Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For example, monitors display data about fuel consumption and weather conditions.
In airport control towers, computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air traffic.
On the ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agents use computers to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and many other details.
4a. When you read texts like these, you don’t always need to understand every word. But there are words which you can guess from the context. Look at these words. Are they nouns (n), verbs (v) or adjectives (adj) 1. workstation ….. 2. data ….. 3. perform ….. 4. automatic ….. 5. monitor…..
6. financial ….. 7. store …… 8. connected ….. 9. word processor …… 10. large …..
Now find the words in the text and match them with the meanings below.
a. information g. self-acting, mechanical b. execute (do) h. screen c. connected with money i. powerful computer usually d. keep (save) connected to a network e. massive j. program used for text f. linked manipulation 4b. Look at the text again and discuss these questions.
1. How are/were computers used in your school 2. What other areas of study would benefit from the introduction of computers Language work: Articles Study these nouns.
a supermarket technology a computer money Supermarket and computer are countable nouns.
We say a supermarket and supermarkets.
Technology and money are uncountable nouns.
They have no plural and you cannot use them with a or an.
Study this paragraph.
Computers have many uses. In shops a computer scans the price of each item.
Then the computer calculates the total cost of all the items.
We use a plural noun with no article, or an uncountable noun, when we talk about things in general.
Computers have many uses.
Information technology is popular.
We use a/an when we mention a countable noun for the first time.
In shops a computer scans the price of each item.
When we mention the same noun again, we use the.
The computer calculates the total cost.
We use the with countable and uncountable nouns to refer to specific things.
The price of each item.
The total cost of all the items.
The speed of this computer.
5. Here are some common nouns in computing. With the help of the dictionary divide them into countable and uncountable nouns. In most dictionaries nouns are marked C for countable and U for uncountable.
1. capacity 2. memory 3. drive 4. data 5. monitor 6. speed 7. device 8. mouse 9. port 10. disk 11. software 12. modem 6. Complete these texts with a/an, the (or nothing at all) as necessary.
The Walsh family have (1) computer at home. Their son uses (2) computer to help with (3) homework and to play (4) computer games. Their student daughter uses (5) computer for (6) projects and for (7) email. All (8) family use it to get (9) information from (10) Internet.
I use (1) computers to find information for (2) people. Readers come in with a lot of queries and I use either our own database or (3) national database that we’re connected to to find what they want. They might want to know (4) name and address of (5) particular society, or last year’s accounts of a company and we can find that out for them. Or they might want to find (6) particular newspaper article but they don’t know (7) exact date it was published so we can find it for them by checking on our online database for anything they can remember: (8) name or the general topic. And we use (9) computers to catalogue (10) books in (11) library and to record (12) books that (13) readers borrow.
7. Write a list of as many uses of the computer, or computer applications, as you can think of.
8. Now read the text below and underline any applications that are not in your list.
What can computers do Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday lives: we visit shops and offices which have been designed with the help of computers, we read magazines which have been produced on computer, we pay bills prepared by computers. Just picking up a telephone and dialling a number involves the use of a sophisticated computer system, as does making a flight reservation or bank transaction.
We encounter daily many computers that spring to life the instant they’re switched on (e.g. calculators, the car’s electronic ignition, the timer in the microwave, or the programmer inside the TV set), all of which use chip technology.
What makes your computer such a miraculous device Each time you turn it on, it is a tabula rasa that, with appropriate hardware and software, is capable of doing anything you ask. It is a calculating machine that speeds up financial calculations. It is an electronic filing cabinet which manages large collections of data such as customers’ lists, accounts, or inventories. It is a magical typewriter that allows you to type and print any kind of document – letters, memos or legal documents. It is a personal communicator that enables you to interact with other computers and with people around the world. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.
Unit II. Types of computer 1. Read the text and match these names to the different types of computer.
1 mainframe 3 notebook 5 PC 2 laptop 4 handheld 6 minicomputer Digital computers can be divided into six main types, depending on their size and power: they are mainframes, minicomputers, desktop PCs, laptops, notebooks and handheld computers.
‘Mainframes’ are the largest and most powerful computers. The basic configuration of a mainframe consists of a central system which processes immense amounts of data very quickly. This central system provides data information and computing facilities for hundreds of terminals connected together in a network.
Mainframes are used by large companies, factories and universities.
‘Minicomputers’ are smaller and less powerful than mainframes. They can handle multi-tasking, that is, they can perform more than one task at the same time.
Minicomputers are mainly used as file servers for terminals. Typical applications include academic computing, software engineering and other sophisticated applications in which many users share resources.
PCs carry out their processing on a single microchip. They are used as personal computers in the home or as workstations for a group. Typical examples are the IBM PC, or the Apple Macintosh. Broadly speaking, there are two classes of personal computer: (a) desktop PCs, which are designed to be placed on your desk, and (b) portable PCs, which can be used as a tiny notebook. This is why they are called ‘notebooks’ and ‘laptops’. The latest models can run as fast as similar desktop computers and have similar configurations. They are ideal for business executives who travel a lot.
The smallest computers can be held in one hand. They are called handheld computers or palmtops. They are used as PC companions or as electronic organizers for storing notes, reminders and addresses.
2. Read the text again and say if these sentences true or false Correct the false ones.
1. Mainframes are multi-user systems – they can be used by many people at the same time.
2. Mainframes are not used for processing large amounts of data.
3. Minicomputers are bigger and more powerful than mainframes.
4. ‘Multitasking’ means doing a number of tasks at the same time.
5. The most suitable computers for home use are minicomputers.
6. Notebooks and laptops are less powerful than desktop computers.
7. Handheld computers are small enough to fit into the palm of one hand.
3. Work in groups. One person chooses a type of computer, the other ask questions trying to find out what type it is. Finally describe each sort of computer.
Language work: Comparison Study this comparison of three types of computer.
Mainframes Minicomputers Microcomputers Size +++ ++ + Power +++ ++ + Cost +++ ++ + We compare things using adjectives in two ways.
1 We can compare one type of computer with another.
Minicomputers are bigger than microcomputers.
Mainframes are more expensive than microcomputers.
For negative comparisons, we can say:
Microcomputers are not as big as minicomputers.
Microcomputers are not as powerful as mainframes.
2 We can compare mainframes to all other types of computer.
Mainframes are the biggest computers.
Mainframes are the most powerful computers.
Mainframes are the most expensive computers.
With short adjectives (big, small, fast), we add -er and -est (faster, fastest).
With longer adjectives (powerful, expensive), we use more/less and the most/the least before the adjective (more powerful, the most powerful).
Remember these two exceptions:
good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst 5. Choose the correct adjective. Then fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adjective.
1. light/heavy Laptops are (1) than desktop computers, but (2) than notebooks.
2. large/small The mainframe is the (3) type of computer. A minicomputer is (4) than a microcomputer.
3. common/good Personal computers are (5) than mainframes but mainframes are (6) than personal computers at processing very large amounts of data.
4. powerful/expensive Minicomputers are (7) than mainframes but they are also (8).
5. fast/cheap New computers are (9) and sometimes (10) than older machines.
6. powerful/expensive Laptops are often (11) than PCs but they are not as (12).
6. Put the words in brackets into the correct form to make an accurate description of sizes of computers.
There are different types of computer. The (large) 1 and (powerful) 2 are mainframe computers. Minicomputers are (small) 3 than mainframes but are still very powerful. Microcomputers are small enough to sit on a desk. They are the (common) 4 type of computer. They are usually (powerful) 5 than minicomputers.
Portable computers are (small) 6 than desktops. The (large) portable is a laptop. (Small) 8 portables, about the size of a piece of writing paper, are called notebook computers. Subnotebooks are (small) 9 than notebooks. You can hold the (small) 10 computers in one hand. They are called handheld computers or palmtop computers.
Unit III. Basic hardware 1. Read the text and label the diagram with the correct terms.
A computer system consists of two parts: the software and the hardware. The software is the information in the form of data and program instructions. The hardware components are the electronic and mechanical parts of the system. The basic structure of a computer system is made up of three main hardware sections: (i) the central processing unit or CPU, (ii) the main memory, and (iii) the peripherals.
The CPU is a microprocessor chip which executes program instructions and coordinates the activities of all the other components. In order to improve the computer’s performance, the user can add expansion cards for video, sound and networking.
The main memory holds the instructions and data which are currently being processed by the CPU.
The internal memory of a microcomputer is usually composed of two sections:
RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read only memory).
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