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Headline paragraph (a) What is done about water pollution (b) What does water pick up from the nature (c) Natural pollution of water (d) Human activity as a source of pollution (e) Does pure water exist at all II. What do the following pronouns refer to in the text (i) it (paragraph B) (v) they (paragraph D) (ii) its (paragraph B) (vi) This (paragraph D) (iii) others (paragraph B) (vii)their (paragraph E) (iv) it (paragraph C) (viii) it (paragraph E) III. Say whether the following statements are true or false and give the paragraph number to show where the information comes from. Correct the false statements.

1) Pure water consists of two parts oxygen and one part hydrogen.

2) Pure water is useful for plants and animals.

3) Water from most streams in their natural state contains the proportions of dissolved minerals harmful for human health.

4) Usually the water that sinks deeply into the ground contains many minerals.

5) Sulphur compounds in the Bear Creek area of northern Alabama give water a bad taste.

6) Natural occurrences and large populations of wild animals can cause severe pollution of lakes and streams.

7) Pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture do not pollute water supplies.

8) Many thousands of pounds have been spent on facilities that reduce the pollution caused by human activity.

9) The operation of dams and reservoirs causes problems for fish and other aquatic life downstream.

IV. What facilities designed to deal with waste are mentioned in the text 1) municipal wastewater a) an area designated to receive solid treatment plant wastes, such as municipal solid waste (household trash), construction debris, and sludge from sewage treatment and other processes;

2) industrial treatment facilities b) a tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution to a leach field for soil absorption;

3) septic tank c) an apparatus, such as a furnace, for burning waste;

4) landfill d) a facility designed to receive the wastewater from domestic sources and to remove materials that damage water quality and threaten public health and safety;

5) incinerator e) the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated by man's industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its reuse.

V. What elements are expressed by the following chemical formulas O2 Mn H S Fe VI. Read the text again and complete the following table.

Sources of natural Sources of manmade water pollution water pollution 1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

etc. etc.

Words, Words, Words I. Match up, give the paragraph number where this word combination comes from and explain the meaning.

pure life dissolved occurrences mineral minerals sulphur contents natural water volcanic pollution water mining accidental supply surface eruptions manmade spills aquatic compounds II. Complete the following table of the corresponding nouns and verbs. Use a dictionary if needed. Make sure that you know the meaning of each word.

Nouns Verbs solution to contain pollution occurrence to build to smell waste activity treatment to taste III. Find in the text words and word combinations which mean the following:

a wall or a bank built across a river to keep back water; to make do something;

the science of planting and caring for large areas of trees; a natural or chemical substance that is put on the land to make crops grow better; to make impure or bad by mixing in dirty or poisonous matter; things such as buildings, services, etc., that are useful or help to do something; material that is used for producing heat or power by burning or by atomic means; domestic; a sudden fall of earth or rocks down a hill, cliff, etc; to take action about; concerning a city, a town; a stretch of water, e.g. of a river, which ships and boats can move on; a living thing that has leaves and root, and grows usu. in earth, esp. the kind smaller than trees; a factory or other place where an industrial process is carried out; a smell, esp. an unpleasant one; what is left after some event, or process; water that has been used in homes, industries, and businesses that is not for reuse unless it is treated; the movement of water through the openings in rock or soil.

IV. Complete the following sentences using the correct words from the box in the grammatical form required. (Note that there is one extra word.) human activity wastes use nutrients ways of living growth dumping untreated sewage water bodies discolouring unfit a. Every body of water - even ones not touched by any _ - receives some.

b. Bacteria oxygen in the water to break down wastes and to turn them into for other marine plants and animals.

c. Most water pollution stems from advances in and from the of population.

d. Years of _ chemicals, traces of metals, _, and heated water into water bodies have weakened water's ability to clean itself and to support life.

e. In with heavy pollution, another form of bacteria breaks down wastes, giving off bad smells, the water, and generally making water for living things.

V. Use the words from the box to fill in the numbered gaps.

The vulnerability of the White Sea (i) is highlighted by the following fact. In the early 1990s, hundreds or may be even thousands of tons of (ii)_ and other marine life were washed ashore at the Dvina Bay, forming an orange wall that extended for dozens of kilometers along the surf edge. Ecologists cited possible causes of the disaster: leakage of mustard gas containers that had been buried in the (iii)_in the 1940s; the sinking of a (iv)_ near the city of Severodvinsk in December 1989; a tanker accident in the Kandalaksha Bay; the fall of a rocket;

radioactive or chemical _(v) of the water area, and the dumping of (vi)_.

New studies showed that only one-tenth of starfish living in shallow water had been killed, which could not be described as an _(vii)_ disaster. It was simply part of a natural maritime (viii) _. The amount of starfish thrown on the shore by storm points to the richness of the marine (ix)_.

a) ecological f) submarine g) contamination b) life cycle h) ecosystem i) sewage c) resources j) starfish k) sea bed Time to Talk Prepare 3-5 min. talk about types of water pollution and measures the nations are taking to deal with it. Use information from the text and on-line resources.

UNIT VI WATER USES IRRIGATION WATER Time for Reading I. Read the text and find information about:

a) the amount of water on the planet;

b) a great variety of water uses;

c) efficient use of irrigation water.

II. What is this text about Choose the best answer.

a. water assumes a variety of forms;

b. a very small amount of water can be used by man;

c. the supply of water is not infinite;

d. in a complex society water is put to a great variety of uses;

e. storage of water in reservoirs may cause considerable losses through evaporation;

f. water tends to be very consumptive;

g. irrigation waters are of crucial importance.

IRRIGATION WATERS The total amount of water contained in our planet is constant and invariable and can neither be increased or diminished. It assumes a variety of forms, such as the oceans, moisture vapour, fresh water, lake water of varying degrees of salinity, and ice. As most of this water is locked away in the oceans, snowfields, ice caps and glaciers, only a small proportion is available in a form readily usable by man.

Moreover, a great deal of the water in and on the land is polluted by minerals or by industrial waste and so frequently rendered unusable.

Of the water contained in the oceans, a very small proportion daily changes its form and composition and is moved to the land, where it can be used by man and from where it returns to the oceans.

It is clear therefore that although a great deal of water is available for use by man, the supply is not finite. While it is likely that the quantity of usable water will be increased by such technological developments as desalinisation and the creation of artificial precipitation, it is certain that for some time to come by far the greater proportion of our water supplies will be derived primarily from surface run-off and to a lesser extent from subterranean sources. In a complex society, water is put to a great variety of uses: for irrigating crops, for the generation of hydroelectricity, for recreation, for canals and waterways, for controlling pollution, and as a source of food. In one way or other, all these uses are interdependent. For example, the construction of a modern dam promotes irrigation, the generation of hydroelectricity, flood control and recreation. Frequently, however, the uses of such natural resources as water may be to some degree competitive and mutually exclusive. Thus a choice must sometimes be made between one use and another. The diversion of water from a stream for irrigation or for drinking may impair navigation and power uses downstream by decreasing stream level and flow, and may create pollution problems.

Individual excessive pumping of underground water supplies may cause a general lowering of the water table with inhibiting effects on other uses of water, while the storage of water in reservoirs may cause considerable losses through evaporation.

Of these competing uses, water for irrigation is perhaps the most important, as it is essential for the survival of many people in many parts of the world. Unlike the other uses of water, it tends to be very consumptive. That is to say, it interferes substantially with the hydrologic cycle of evaporation, rainfall and run-off; this effect is mainly due to heavy losses by evaporation. In addition, the return flow of irrigation water to rivers and canals after use does not contain the same quality of water which was originally applied to the field. It is almost always altered by varying degrees of mineral concentration and organic matter and may be unfit for some uses without ameliorating treatment. For these reasons, efficient and effective conservation of irrigation waters are of growing and crucial importance.

Did You Get It I. Say whether the following statements true or false. Correct false ones.

1) The total amount of water contained in our planet is constant and can not be diminished.

2) A great deal of water on the land is polluted by man.

3) The greater proportion of our water supplies is derived from subterranean sources.

4) In a complex society water is put to a great variety of uses: for generation of electricity, recreation and a source of food.

5) Individual excessive pumping of underground water supplies causes a general lowering of the water table.

6) Of all competitive uses, water for irrigation is perhaps the most important.

7) Water does not interfere substantially with the hydrologic cycle of evaporation.

8) Water is always altered by varying degrees of mineral concentration.

II. Answer the questions.

1) What forms does water assume 2) What proportion of water is locked away in the oceans, snowfields, ice caps and glaciers 3) What part of water can be used by man 4) How will the quantity of usable water be increased 5) In what society is water put to many uses 6) What does the construction of a modern dam promote 7) What is the cause of decreasing stream level and flow 8) What may cause considerable losses through evaporation 9) Why is the water for irrigation essential for the survival of many people in the world 10) Why does water tend to be consumptive 11) Does irrigation water contain the same quality of water after use 12) What water is always altered by varying degrees of mineral concentration and organic matter Words, Words, Words...

I. Match the words on the left with the meaning on the right.

1. constant a. vital 2. invariable b. man-made 3. available c. actual 4. usable d. accessible 5. artificial e. unchangeable 6. considerable f. stable 7. essential g. important 8. substantial h. marked 9. crucial i. fit for use II. What is the difference in meaning between the following:

proportion / part fresh water / drinking water complex society/advanced society minerals / natural resources contain / hold in industrial waste / domestic waste lock in / lock away primarily / mainly move to / move on reservoir / body of water stream / spring apply to / apply for flow / flood unfit / unusable water table / water level III. Find the following expressions in the text. What do they mean Use them in the sentences of your own.

1. a great deal of 2. pollution problems 3. be used by 4. storage of water 5. technological developments 6. interfere with 7. be derived from 8. efficient use IV. Match up the words with their definitions.

1. precipitation a) level below which the ground is filled with water;

2. supply a) make or become different;

3. irrigate a) give or provide something needed or asked for;

4. diversion a) fall of snow, rain, etc.;

5. flow a) live or exist longer than 6. water table a) the act of turning something aside or giving it a different direction;

7. survival a) construct reservoirs, canals for the distribution of water to fields;

8. alter a) move along or over as a river does.

V. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets.

1) Irrigation in New Zealand is much more than in Australia.

(limited) 2) It is hoped that the scheme will eventually support a population _ largely on agriculture. (base) 3) agriculture is also very limited in Libya. (irrigate) 4) At present Indias _ areas of irrigated land are in the Northern Plain. (large) 5) The project will provide irrigation to 3-6 million acres annually.

(eventual) 6) Four main types of irrigation are _ used in China (common) 7) It is clear that careful planning the success of a large-scale irrigation project. (ensure).

8) In Western Europe irrigation is very largely in character.

(supplement) 9) Egypt is an example of traditional peasant irrigation _. (farm) VI. Complete the following text with the words below. Put only one word in each gap.

1. deprivation 2. irrigate 3. replenish 4. purely 5. shorelines 6. annually 7. fulfill 8. abundance When the Aral Sea was whole, its surface waters evaporated as much as one meter (a)_ throwing up a volume of vapor that successfully deflected currents of cold air to higher altitudes where they drifted to the distant Pamir Mountain to (b)_ its glacier system. And from these eternal glaciers rivers flowed.

The Aral Sea was created by two important rivers, the Syr in the north and the Amu in the south. As long as man can remember, farmers on the banks of both have drawn off necessary amounts of water to (c)_ their fields. But at no time did this (d) lower the level of the great lake by more than three meters before seasonal rains could replenish it.

Until its deliberate destruction commenced, the Arals (e)_ remained firm and were surrounded by land sufficiently fertile to support one-fourth million hectares of forest. Reeds in great (f)_ supplied all the material for the production of cellulose and carton.

All of these advantages to the nation were to change or be lost in the early 1960s when a plan called for as much cotton production as the nature of the region could support, through healthy or unhealthy practices. Cotton at any cost, became the cry, and the wreckers went to work to (g)_ it.

To irrigate the massive area plowed for cotton, both the Arals rivers were heavily tapped. In ancient times they had been known for the (h) of their waters, but this too would soon change. The cotton plan did succeed in increasing acreage from the customary 3,000,000 hectares to about 7,000,000.

Time to Talk Work in pairs. Make up dialogues discussing:

a. A great deal of water is used by man.

b. The diversion of water from a river or lake may create pollution problems.

UNIT VII GROUNDWATER Question Time Speaking. Look at the diagram below and answer:

Where is grounwater used most What category uses the least amount of groundwater Time for Reading Read the text and say where you are likely to find a text like this. Prove your answer.

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