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TAPPING GROUNDWATER Some 97% of liquid freshwater is stored underground in aquifers. People, especially in rural areas, are increasingly dependent on groundwater up to 2 billion people, a third of the worlds population, rely on it.

Aquifers are most severely depleted Drinking Groundwater in parts of India, China, the US, Region % of People served North Africa and the Middle East. It drinking (millions) can take centuries for aquifers to water from recharge, so the world is currently groundwater Asia-Pacific 32 1,000 to 2,000 running a groundwater overdraft of 200 billion cubic metres a year.

Europe 75 200 to Pollution is a major problem, Latin 29 resulting from human and farm America animal waste, naturally occurring United 51 toxins, as well as the over 10 million States different synthetic chemicals in use Australia 15 today.

Africa no data no data World 1,500 to 2,Did You Get It I. Match the beginning of a sentence in column A with an ending in column B to produce a statement which is true according to the text.

A B (a) Saltwater (i) do not have access to a safe water supply (b) Water (ii) use groundwater as drinking.

(c) The area of irrigated land (iii) is unfit for human use.

(d) Dirty water (iv) use water for drinking, cooking and maintaining hygiene.

(e) People (v) and many others are water-born diseases.

(f) Cholera and diarrhoea (vi) has doubled in the past 40 years.

(g) About 1,000 million people (vii) causes many diseases.

in the Asia-Pacific region (h) About 300 million people in (viii) is distributed unevenly over the surface.

Africa II. Answer the following questions.

1) Where is most freshwater situated 2) How much of freshwater is usable 3) What spheres do people use freshwater 4) What parts of the world are considered as worst affected by water shortage 5) How many people will be facing water stress by 2025 6) What are the water-related or water-borne diseases 7) What measures can reduce diarrhoea by 35% 8) How much water can people get by with 9) What country do the people use the least amount of water 10) How many people in the world rely on groundwater 11) Where are aquifers of groundwater severely depleted 12) What are the sources of water pollution III. Match the figures in column A with their corresponding explanation in column B.

A B (a) 10 million (i) the amount of saltwater on the Earth (b) 2 billion (ii) people dependent on groundwater (c) 1980s (iii) the amount of water an average British uses per day (d) 97.5% (iv) different synthetic chemicals in use today (e) 80 % (v) a peak of the guinea-worm infections (f) 70% (vi) the amount of children killed by diarrhea (g) 200 (vii) the amount of freshwater used in agriculture Words, Words, Words...

I. Find in the text words and word combinations which mean the following.

to check and to control; to make twice as great or as many; to meet or be faced with (something bad, esp. a danger or a difficult situation); to add water to an aquifer;

the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes through manmade systems to supply water requirements not satisfied by rainfall; water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells; large underground pipes carrying a public supply of water; happening every year or once a year; a poisonous substance; drawing upon groundwater; the water that is provided and treated for a particular area; exaggerated usage of groundwater; a smaller river or stream that flows into a larger river or stream; the land area that drains water to a particular stream, river, or lake.

II. Complete the following table of the corresponding nouns and verbs. Use a dictionary if needed. Make sure that you know the meaning of each word.

Nouns Verbs demand provision supply deplete requirement expansion infect use III. Match up the word combinations from the column A with their explanation from the column B. Use these expressions in the sentences of your own.

A B beyond ones reach to trust, to have confidence in;

to account for to represent numerically;

to take into account a very small bit of hope;

ray of hope to manage to survive;

to get by because of, caused by;

due to impossible to reach;

to run off to flow off, to drain;

to rely on to give proper consideration to a fact, situation, when making a decision.

IV. Fill in the numbered gaps with the words below.

Caught between growing (1)_ for fresh water on the one hand and limited and increasingly polluted _(2) on the other, many countries face difficult choices. Finding solutions requires responses at local, national, and international levels.

The challenge is how to (3)_ the Earth's limited store of freshwater, conserve its use, and improve how it is managed. To do this, management decisions must be based on (4) of the cycle of water.

In an effort to spur action to (5)_ the coming crisis, the UN General Assembly plans to proclaim the period 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action, Water for Life.

International co-operation is possible and practicable. In November 1999, for example, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan agreed upon a strategy for the (6)_ development of the Nile water.

Governments can develop national water management (7)_ that help to improve supply and also to manage demand better. Key strategies include regulation of water depending on its end use, watershed (8), and appropriate (9)_.

The nations must share technology, (10)_ and goodwill to manage the earth's scarce fresh water so that deserts bloom, lakes do not die and wells do not dry.

meet sustainable supplies demand policies understanding pricing protect resources management Time to Talk I. Expressing your opinion.

If the world fought for oil in the 20th century, the war will be about water in the 21st century. Do you agree with this statement Using information from the texts, give reasons to support your opinion. Present 3-5 min. talk.

II. Opinion Survey: How would you handle water crisis In your group organize an opinion survey What measures would you use to handle water crisis Complete the table below and summarize the result of the survey. Share the results with the teacher and the group mates. What measures are the most popular/the least popular in your group Possible Answers Great idea, Pretty good Only a Bad idea, I I'd use it idea fair idea wouldn't use it Measures a) Mandatory restrictions on water use b) Find new water supplies (build a reservoir, new wells) c) Raise the price of water d) Cut back/stop new developments e) Encourage water conservation f) Buy water from another city/country Total UNIT III WHY WATER DOES WHAT IT DOES Question Time I. Work in pairs. Here are some "maybe true/maybe false" water properties. See if you know the real water facts.

Water contracts when it freezes.

Water has a high surface tension.

Condensation is water coming out of the air.

More things can be dissolved in sulphuric acid than in water.

Rainwater is the purest form of water.

Sea water is slightly more alkaline (the pH value is higher) than most natural fresh water.

Raindrops are tear-shaped.

II. Make sure that you know the meaning of the following international words.

hydrosphere to absorb elastic planet organisms film topographic to regulate organisms cubic effectively phenomenon kilometre neutral pH gravity substance carbon dioxide gas liquid sulphur dioxide massive physical oceans redistribution energy Celsius process temperature chemical condensation Time for Reading Read the text and fill the numbered gaps with the sentences (A-J).

A. This phenomenon also causes water to stick to the sides of vertical structures despite gravity's downward pull.

B. Because water has a high specific heat, it can absorb large amounts of heat energy before it begins to get hot.

C. When water freezes it expands rapidly adding about 9 % by volume.

D. This feature plays an important role in the redistribution of heat energy in the Earth's atmosphere.

E. Most animals and plants contain more than 60 % water by volume.

F. These properties are G. This range allows water to remain as a liquid in most places on the Earth.

H. It is able to dissolve a large number of different chemical compounds.

I. More than 70 % of the Earth's surface is covered with it.

J. Water in a pure state has a neutral pH.

PROPERTIES OF WATER We live on a planet that is dominated by water.(1).

Scientists estimate that the hydrosphere contains about 1.36 billion cubic kilometres of this substance mostly in the form of a liquid that occupies topographic depressions on the Earth.

Water is also essential for life. Water is the major constituent of almost all life forms._(2). Without water life would probably never have developed on our planet.

Water has several other unique physical properties.(3)_:

Water has a high specific heat. Specific heat is the amount of energy required to change the temperature of a substance.(4). It also means that water releases heat energy slowly when situations cause it to cool. Water's high specific heat allows for the moderation of the Earth's climate and helps organisms regulate their body temperature more effectively.

(5). As a result, pure water is neither acidic nor alkaline. Water changes its pH when substances are dissolved in it. Rain has a naturally acidic pH of about 5.6 because it contains natural derived carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.

Water conducts heat more easily than any liquid except mercury. This fact causes large bodies of liquid water like lakes and oceans to have essentially a uniform vertical temperature profile.

Water exists as a liquid over an important range of temperature from 0 - 100 Celsius. (6).

Liquid water is a universal solvent._(7)_. This feature also enables water to carry solvent nutrients in runoff, infiltration, groundwater flow, and living organisms.

Water has a high surface tension. In other words, water is adhesive and elastic, and tends to aggregate in drops rather than spread out over a surface as a thin film.(8)_. Water's high surface tension allows for the formation of water droplets and waves, allows plants to move water and dissolved nutrients from their roots to their leaves, and the movement of blood through tiny vessels in the bodies of some animals.

Water is the only substance on Earth that exists in all three physical states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Massive amounts of heat exchange are incorporated in the changes of state._(9). In terms of heat being transferred into the atmosphere, approximately 3/4 of this process is accomplished by the evaporation and condensation of water.

The freezing of water causes it to expand.(10). Fresh water has a maximum density at around 4 Celsius. Water is the only substance on this planet where the maximum density of its mass does not occur when it becomes solidified.

Did You Get It I. Answer the following questions 1. How much of the Earths surface is covered with water 2. What is the most widespread form of water 3. Why is water so important 4. Name the properties of water.

5. What is specific heat 6. What role does specific heat play 7. Is pure water acidic or basic 8. When does water change its pH 9. What chemical compounds does rain have 10. What liquid conducts heat most easily 11. Why does water exist as a liquid in most places 12. Does water have high or low surface tension 13. What is the importance of waters high surface tension 14. What are the three physical states of matter that water can exist in 15. What happens to water when it freezes 16. When does fresh water have a maximum density II. Say what statements are true and what ones are false. Comment on the true statements and correct the false ones.

1. Water is the main element of almost all life forms.

2. Water has low specific energy.

3. Water in pure state is acidic.

4. Rain water has a naturally acidic pH of 5.6.

5. Large bodies of water have a uniform vertical temperature profile.

6. Water can dissolve a large number of chemical compounds.

7. Water tends to spread out over a surface as a thin film.

8. Waters high specific heat is the cause of the formation of water droplets and waves.

9. The changes of state are incorporated with huge amounts of heat exchange.

10. When water freezes it expands rapidly adding about 9% by weight.

11. Salt water has a maximum density at about 4 Celsius.

III. What do the following chemical formulas stand for H2O O CO2 Hg SOIV. What is the significance of the following numbers and statistics found in the text.

a) 60 b) 5.c) 0-100 d) e) 9 f) Words, Words, Words I. Match up and explain the meaning.

specific vapour temperature depressions chemical pull surface compounds gravity heat groundwater profile water flow topographic tension II. Match up the words or word-combinations with their definitions.

1. hydrosphere a. the great body of salt water that covers about of the earths surface 2. liquid b. characteristics 3. solid c. the physical part of the universe consisting of solids, liquids and gases 4. evaporation d. when warm water vapour or steam turns into small drops of water 5. properties e. mass of water that is found in, on and over the surface of the Earth 6. matter f. a liquid that is able to dissolve other substances 7. solvent g. a substance that stays the same shape whether it is in a container or not 8. condensation h. when a liquid changes from a liquid state to a gas state 9. ocean i. a substance which is not a solid or a gas, which flows, is wet, and has no fixed shape III. Complete the following text with the words below.

Water has a very simple (a)_. This structure consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one (b). The nature of the atomic structure of water causes its molecules to have unique _(c). The hydrogen side of the water molecule has a slight (d). On the other side of the molecule a negative charge exists. This molecular polarity causes water to be a powerful _(e)and is responsible for its strong (f)_.

When water makes a physical phase change its molecules arrange themselves in distinctly different patterns. The pattern taken by water when it is frozen causes its volume _(g) and its density to decrease. Expansion of water at freezing allows ice (h)on top of liquid water.

Water in the form of a gas is highly charged with _(i)_. This high energy state causes the molecules to be always moving reducing the likelihood of bonds between individual molecules from forming.

electrochemical properties oxygen atom to expand positive charge to float solvent surface tension energy atomic structure IV. Read and translate words with the same roots.

To freeze freezing frost - frozen;

to expand expanding - expansion;

to dissolve dissolved - solvent;

to conduct - conductor;

to condense - condensation;

to evaporate evaporation - vapour;

to solidify solidified - solid.

V. Match up the words with opposite meaning.

to release to get cool to contract to absorb to get hot to spread out to aggregate alkaline acidic to expand Time to Talk Work in pairs.

Discuss with your partner in what way water is different from other liquids.

UNIT IV THE WATER CYCLE Question Time I. Speaking.

Using the information from the text below and the diagram, answer the following questions.

1. What reservoir holds most of the water supply 2. How much is the freshwater supply 3. Where is freshwater located 4. How much freshwater do surface-water reservoirs provide 5. What role does the hydrologic cycle play in the water supply of our planet Water is a limited non-renewable resource. A fixed amount of some 1,million cubic kilometres exists on the planet, which can be neither increased nor decreased. Of all the water on Earth, only a small amount is available for us to use.

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