МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE Учебное пособие ГСЭ.Ф.01 ВОРОНЕЖ 2005 2 Утверждено научно-методическим советом ф-та РГФ (протокол №5 от 28 июня 2005 г.) Составители: Стернина М.А.
Учебное пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.
Предназначено для студентов 1 курса дневного отделения ф-та прикладной математики, информатики и механики, обучающихся по специальности «Прикладная математикаи информатика».
3 Настоящее учебное пособие является частью создаваемого на кафедре английского языка учебно-методического комплекса для студентов дневного отделения ф-та прикладной математики, информатики и механики, обучающихся по специальности «Прикладная математика и информатика» (010200) и предназначено для студентов 1 курса.
Пособие состоит из четырех разделов, три из которых посвящены соответственно трем основным математическим дисциплинам, читаемым на 1 курсе факультета: ЭВМ и программирование, математический анализ, алгебраи геометрия, а четвертый содержиттексты для дополнительного чтения.
Авторы ставят своей целью знакомство студентов с лексикой, характерной для каждой из перечисленных математических дисциплин, обучение их адекватному пониманию и переводу соответствующих текстов, а также привитие им навыков аннотирования текстов по специальности.
Грамматический материал пособия охватывает систему времен английского глагола в действительном и страдательном залогах, а также неличные глагольные формы.
В приложении приводится список лексикограмматических клише для аннотирования и реферирования научных текстов, а также объясняется чтение основных математических формул.
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА 1. Santiago Remacha Esteras. Infotech. – Cambridge University Press, 2002.
1. Read the international words and guess their meaning:
term fundamental algorithm operator computer result instruction problem arithmetic discrete algebra mathematics procedure 2. Read the following words and memorize their meaning:
appearance (n) появление version (n) версия branch (n) отрасль concept (n) понятие, идея notion (n) понятие, представление engineering (n) техника exact (a) точный intelligibility (n) понятность, доступность intelligible (a) понятный executor (n) исполнитель property (n) свойство discreteness (n) дискретность vagueness (n) неточнотсь, неясность determinacy (n) детерминированность termination (n) окончание finite (a) конечный to achieve (v) достигать 3. Memorize the following word combinations:
sequence of operations последовательность операций distinguishing feature отличительная черта to carry out выполнять to take into account принимать во внимание to have an influence оказывать внимание due to из-за чего-то, благодаря чему-то both... and как, так и to come into usage войти в употребление 4. Read the text.
ALGORITHM The term “algorithm” has come into usage quite recently. Its appearance in our life is due to the rapid rise of computer science which has the study of algorithm as its focal point.
The word “algorithm” originated in the Middle East. It comes from the Latin version of the last name of the Persian scholar Abu Jafar Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowaresmi (Algorithmi), whose textbook on arithmetic, written in 825 A. D.*, gave birth to algebra as an independent branch of mathematics. In the 12th century this textbook was translated into Latin and it had a great influence for many centuries on the development of computing procedures. The name of the textbook’s author became associated with computation in general and used as a term “algorithm”.
The concept of an algorithm is now one of the most fundamental notions, both in mathematics and engineering. An algorithm is defined as an exact and intelligible order for a certain executor to carry out a sequence of operations, aiming at getting certain results or solving a given problem.
An algorithm has 5 properties of its own. The first of them is called discreteness.
This property means that the process under description is to be separated into certain steps (instructions).
The second property of an algorithm may be called its intelligibility. It means that an algorithm should take into account, what orders an executor can understand and carry out and what orders he or it cannot.
The next distinguishing feature of an algorithm is that all vagueness must be eliminated – each instruction must have one single meaning. This property of an algorithm is called the property of determinacy.
Another property of an algorithm is its mass character, which means that a given algorithm may be used for solving a certain class of problems.
The last property of an algorithm is its effectiveness. It means that the exact carrying out of all orders of the algorithm should lead to termination of the process after a finite number of steps.
* A.D. – anno Domini /лат./ - нашей эры 5. Answer the following questions:
1. When did the term “algorithm” come into usage 2. Why is this term widely spread nowadays 3. What is the origin of this term 4. What is the definition of an algorithm 5. How many properties does an algorithm have Speak of each of them.
6. Who can be an executor of an algorithm, to your mind SECTION 2.
1. Read the international words and guess their meaning:
modern machine logic electronic mechanism control command activities section 2. Read the following words and memorize their meaning:
digital (a) цифровой device (n) устройство to store (v) хранить, записывать to accept (v) принимать, получать to process (v) обрабатывать software (n) программное обеспечение hardware (n) аппаратная часть equipment (n) оборудование unit (n) единица, элемент byte (n) байт bit (n) бит input (n) вход output (n) выход data (n) данные storage (n) память punched card (n) перфокарта punched tape (n) перфолента keyboard клавиатура printer (n) печатающее устройство peripheral (n,a) периферийное устройство, периферийный buffer (n) буфер speed (n) скорость to transmit (v) передавать capacity (n) емкость, объем памяти 3. Memorize the following word combination:
to store information хранить информацию internal storage внутренняя память external storage внешняя память access time время обращения кпамяти to distinguish between делать различие между by means of посредством, с помощью as compared with по сравнению счем-то that is why поэтому as well as также как to take place происходить, иметь место 4. Read the text.
COMPUTERS Modern electronic digital computers have become means of solving mathematical and other scientific problems. The sphere of their application is now practically boundless.
An electronic computer is a device that can accept information, store it, process it and present the result of the processing in some acceptable form. When we speak about a computer, we must distinguish between its hardware and software. Hardware represents the material part of the machine, its equipment, while software is represented by computer instruction and programs.
The computer is told what operations to perform by means of instructions. An instruction is a command to the computer.
The basic unit of information for a computer is called a byte. A byte consists of eight bits. The word “bit” is formed from the letter “b” in the word “binary” and the letters “it” in the word “digit”. A bit is the smallest unit of information.
The part of a computer that takes in information is called the input unit. It is the functional part of the computer that accepts the data to be operated and programs for operating. Input to the computer used to be provided by punched cards and punched tapes. Nowadays it is provided by a keyboard. The part of a computer that puts out the information is called the output unit. The computer can put out information in a form acceptable to people with the help of printer and display.
Input and output device are usually called peripherals.
These peripheral devices are rather slow as compared with the computer. That is why many computers have special buffers. The aim of the buffer is to provide a better match between the speed of internal electronic operations and input and output operations. Buffers thus are storage devices accepting information at a very high speed from the computer and releasing it at the proper speed for the peripheral equipment.
The part of a computer which stores information is called storage of memory. It is the mechanism that can retain information during calculation and transmit it as needed to other parts of the machine. Storage is characterized by 2 main factors: an access time and capacity. Memory access time is the time required to transmit one computer word out of the memory to where it will be used. The capacity of a computer memory is the quantity of data and programs that the memory unit can hold. According to these two factors we can speak about 2 types of storage – internal, capable of quick access, and external storage, providing large capacity.
The central processing unit (CPU) or central processor is the nerve center of any computer system. It coordinates and controls the activities of all other units and has hardware section: an arithmetic and logic unit, and a central unit.
The CPU has two functions: it must obtain instructions from the memory and interpret them as well as perform the actual operations. The first function is executed by the central unit. The second function of the CPU is performed by the arithmetic and logic unit.
Thus the arithmetic and logic unit is that part of the CPU in which the actual computations take place. The central unit is that part of the CPU which obtains instructions from the memory, interprets them and generates the control signals.
5. Answer the following questions:
1. What is an electronic computer 2. How can you define hardware 3. What is software 4. What is an instruction 5. How do we call the basic unit of information for a computer 6. How many bits does a byte consist of 7. How can you define the input unit 8. How can you define the output unit 9. How are input and output devices usually called together 10. What is the aim of a buffer 11. How can you define a buffer 12. What is storage 13. What is the synonym of the word “storage” 14. What are the 2 main factors storage is characterized by 15. What are the functions of the central processing unit 16. How many parts is CPU composed of 17. What is the general purpose of the central unit 18. What is the arithmetic and logical unit responsible for 19. What are the main parts of a computer 6. Retell the text using the questions given in the previous exercise as a plan.
7. Read the summary of the text given below and write a summary of the text “Algorithm”. Use the expressions, given in supplement 1.
The text given under the title “Computers” deals with the structure of modern computers. It carries material on the main parts of a computer: input, output, storage, central processor and defines them. The author also dwells upon such devices as buffers and speaks about the functions of the central processor. The text is concluded by the definitions of the arithmetic and central units of the CPU.
1. Read the international words and guess their meaning:
process code program popular catalogue commercial 2. Read the following words and memorize their meaning:
subroutine (n) подпрограмма assembler (n) ассемблер to require (v) требовать to constitute (v) составлять available (adj) доступный, подходящий advantage (n) преимущество familiar (adj) знакомый acronym (n) акроним version (n) вариант 3. Memorize the following word combinations:
programming language язык программирования assembly language язык ассемблер machine-dependent language машинно-зависимый язык the so-called так называемый to stand for обозначать to gain popularity завоевывать популярность low-level language язык низкого уровня high-level language язык высокого уровня 4. Read the text.
PPOGRAMMING Programming is the process by which a set of instructions is produced for a computer to make it perform a certain procedure. The word “program” means the sequence of instructions which a computer carries out. A program usually consists of subroutines or subprograms. A subroutine is part of a program which constitutes a logical section of the program. It is written only once in the program, but may be used many times during the computation.
Many common subroutines are used quite often. That is why it is necessary to have a library of subroutines stored in some part of the computer memory and available to the programmer.
In order to make a computer perform certain instructions or commands, people use the so-called programming languages. The most primitive type of programming language is known as an assembly language. It provides commands that are very similar to the machine language of the computer. The assembly language is the most machine-dependent one. The advantage of this language is that it is easy for the computer to understand it.
The assembly language is a low level language which is oriented to the machine code of a computer. But there are also the so-called high level languages which allow users to write in a notation which they are more familiar with.
High level languages are usually aimed at a certain problem. There are several types of high level languages. One of them is FORTRAN. FORTRAN is an acronym for FORmula TRANslation. It is a problem oriented high level programming language for scientific and mathematical use. FORTRAN was the first high level programming language. It was introduced in 1954. There were several versions of FORTRAN.
Another high level language is PL/1. It was introduced in 1964. PL/1 stands for Programming Language 1. It is a general-purpose high level programming language for scientific and commercial applications.
ALGOL is another high level language. It was introduced in the early 1960s and gained popularity in Europe more than in the United States. ALGOL is an acronym for ALGOrithmic Language. It is a problem oriented high level programming language for mathematical and scientific use.
COBOL is an acronym for COmmon Business Oriented Language. It is internationally accepted programming language developed for general commercial use.
BASIC is a high level programming language designed by solving mathematical and business problems. It was developed in 1965 and stands for Beginners Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
One more high level programming language is PASCAL. It is a general-purpose high level language named after the French mathematician Blaise Pascal.
C is a modern high level programming language, designed in the 1970s for usage with UNIX operating system. It replaced the programming language B which had been intended for UNIX. C is much more flexible than other high level languages and due to this it has now become a widely used professional language for various reasons. There are two modifications of this language – C+ and C++.
One more modern high level programming language is Java. It looks a lot like C++, but its strength lies in a slightly different area than that of C++. A well-written Java program is generally far simpler and much easier to understand than the equivalent C program. Java’s error handling is a big improvement over most other languages which lead to greater programming productivity.
5. Answer the following questions:
1. What is programming 2. How can you define a program 3. What is a subroutine 4. What are advantages of the assembly language 5. What high level programming languages do you know 6. What do the names of these programming languages stand for 7. What are the most modern programming languages 8. What are the modern programming languages characterized by 6. Write a summary of the text. Use expressions given in Supplement 1.
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