ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ РФ ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ Контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов заочного отделения по специальности:
Природопользование 020802 (013400) ОПД 020802 ВОРОНЕЖ 2005 2 Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета географии и геоэкологии протокол № 6 от 8.06.2005г.
Составители: Сафонова Н.В.
Пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка факультета романогерманской филологии Воронежского государственного университета Рекомендуется для студентов заочного отделения факультета географии и геоэкологии 3 Методическая записка Контрольные работы 1-5 предназначены для студентов 1-3 курсов заочного отделения факультета географии и геоэкологии. Они содержат тексты по специальности и упражнения для контроля усвоения грамматического материала, предусмотренного программой по английскому языку для неязыковых факультетов вузов. Данные контрольные работы содержат следующий грамматический материал: существительные, местоимения, числительные, времена глагола в действительном и страдательном (пассивном ) залогах, модальные глаголы, неличные формы глагола, условные предложения. Задания должны выполняться в той последовательности, в которой они даны в контрольной работе.
Для усвоения указанных выше разделов грамматики при выполнении контрольных работ студент заочник должен руководствоваться рекомендованной литературой: Бонк Н.А., Лукьянова Н.А., Палухина Л.Г. «Учебник английского языка» ч. 1 и 2. – М.: Высшая школа; Новицкая Т.М., Кучин Н.Д. «Практическая грамматика английского языка». – М.: Высшая школа; Raymond Murphy.
English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press.
При завершении курса обучения студенты должны уметь: читать со словарем тексты страноведческого, общенаучного содержания, а также тематически связанные с будущей профессией, уметь выражать свои мысли, используя правила английской грамматики и усвоенный лексический запас. Грамматический материал проверяется в форме контрольных работ или тестов. Выполнение и оформление контрольных работ должно производиться следующим образом :
1) Письменные контрольные работы следует выполнять в отдельной тетради. На ее обложке студент должен написать свою фамилию, номер контрольной работы.
2) Контрольные работы надо писать аккуратно и четко, оставляя поля для замечаний и методических указаний рецензента.
3) Выполненные работы необходимо отправлять для проверки и рецензирования в университет, строго соблюдая установленные сроки.
TEST I Grammar: Nouns and Numerals.
The verbs “to be”, “to have”.
Simple, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous Tenses (Active Voice).
I. Before reading the text, try to guess the meanings of the following words.
• globe • distance • voyage • ocean • zenith • era • accompany • catalogue • bruit • rotundity • administration • calculate • myth II. Be careful to pronounce the following names correctly.
1) Alexander the Great 2) Eratosthenes 3) Cyrene 4) Claudius Ptolemy 5) Christian era 6) Jerusalem 7) Herodotus III. Read and translate the text. Do paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 in written form.
To the ancients the earth was a flat plain, solid and immovable and surrounded by water, out of which the sun rose in the east and into which it set in the west. To them “geography” meant simply a description of the lands with which they were acquainted. The word “earth” arouses in our minds the conception of an enormous globe suspended in empty space, one side in shadow and the other bathed in the rays of the sun. The outer surface of this globe consists of an ocean of air enclosing another more solid surface (partly land and partly water), which teems with countless forms of animal and vegetable life. This is the earth of which geography gives us a description.
Herodotus, who we look upon as the father of geography as well as of history, had visited the known regions of the earth by about the year 450 B.C. and described accurately what he saw, thus laying the foundations of Comparative Geography.
About 300 B.C. Alexander the Great penetrated hitherto unknown regions. He sent a naval expedition to explore India, accompanied by learned men who described the countries and their inhabitants, originating the science of Political Geography, or the geography of man.
About the year 200 B.C., Eratosthenes of Cyrene, the keeper of the Royal Library at Alexandria, convinced of the rotundity of the earth, attempted to determine its magnitude. The town of Cyrene, on the Nile, was situated exactly under the tropic, for he knew that on the summer solstice, the sun’s rays at noon illuminated the bottom of a deep well. At Alexandria, however, on the day of the summer solstice, Eratosthenes observed that at noon the vertical finger of a sun-dial cast a shadow, showing that there the sun was not exactly overhead. From the length of the shadow he ascertained the sun’s distance from the zenith to be one-fiftieth of the circumference of the heavens; from which he calculated that the distance between Alexandria and Cyrene should be one-fiftieth of the circumference of the world. He was the founder of Mathematical Geography; through his labors it became possible to determine the location of places by means of lines corresponding to our lines of latitude and longitude.
Claudius Ptolemy, in the second century of the Christian era, made a catalogue of the positions of places. With this as his basis, he made a series of twenty six maps.
To him we owe the art of map-making, the origination of Geographic Art.
When Rome began to rule the world, the Romans paid attention to geography which facilitated the administration of their empire. They were great road-builders.
Maps of their military roads exhibited with accuracy stations on the route from Rome to India, and from Rome to the further end of Britain. With the fall of Rome came the collapse of geographical knowledge. In the typical map of the Middle Ages, Jerusalem lay in the center, with Paradise on the east and Europe on the west. The Northmen crossed the ocean to Iceland, proceeded to Greenland, and even visited the mainland of North America about 1000 A.D.; but these voyages were forgotten or looked upon as myths.
In the fourteenth or fifteenth century, the mariner’s compass was introduced into Europe from China, and it then became possible to venture far out of sight of land. Columbus boldly set sail across the Atlantic. To many his contemporaries it seemed madness to seek East by sailing West. Expecting to find the East Indies he found America instead. Five centuries had elapsed since the Northmen had made their voyages to these shores – labors barren of results. The discovery of Columbus, however, immediately bore fruit. The spirit of discovery was quickened and geographic knowledge advanced with a great leap. America was explored; Africa was the earth by sailing westward until reaching the starting point.
The present century forms a new era in the progress of geography – the era of organized research.
IV. Answer the questions in the written form.
1) What was the earth to the ancients 2) What does the word “geography” mean to them 3) Who was the founder of the Comparative Geography 4) Where did Alexander the Great send a naval expedition to 5) Who tried to determine the earth’s magnitude 6) What did Eratosthenes observe at Alexandria 7) How did he calculate the distance between Alexandria and Cyrene 8) Who do we owe the art of map-making 9) What did the Romans pay attention to 10) Why did the collapse of geographic knowledge come 11) Whose voyages were forgotten or looked upon as myths 12) In what century was the mariner’s compass introduced 13) The discovery of Columbus bore fruit, didn’t it 14) When was a new era of organized research formed V. Try to match the following titles with the paragraphs.
a) The founder of Mathematical Geography.
b) The possibility of determining the local of places by means of lines latitude and longitude.
c) The Earth as a flat plain.
d) Origination of Geographic Art.
e) Romans as great road builders.
f) Introduction of mariner’s compass.
VI. Put the following words into three groups.
a. great geographers;
b. geographic terms;
c. scientific terms.
Collapse, calculate, longitude, globe, Columbus, Alexander the Great, description, Eratosthenes, determine, conception, venture, ascertain, discovery, explore, Claudius Ptolemy, zenith, suspend region, compose, mainland, plain, suspend, quicken, research, Herodotus, circumference, magnitude, latitude,.noon VII. Find the following in the text.
A noun meaning:
a. either the shortest day in the year;
b. the highest point;
c. land mass, considered without its islands;
d. a person who lives in a particular place;
e. a large stretch of flat land;
f. the outer part;
g. the general understanding;
h. an instrument showing direction;
i. the distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees.
VIII. Give translations of the following sentences in written form.
1) Some 2.3 million people are employed in trades, offering a service directly to the public.
2) Over 1/3 of Britain’s agricultural land is grassland.
3) About 3/4 of all primary energy consumed in Britain now comes from domestic sources.
4) Britain is one of the world’s smaller countries with an area of some 244,square kilometers.
5) Manufacturing investment in 1999 was about 5,800 million.
6) Before 1900, Nauru was like other Pacific islands.
7) The earth’s last glacial period gave way to a warming period about 11.years ago.
8) Seismologists estimate that the earthquake that shook San Francisco, California in 1906 measured 8.3 on the Richter scale.
IX. Try to pronounce the following numerals correctly.
200 1/5; 4/9 1.1000 0.5 1995 (year) 1.450 2.44 2005 (year) 3/ X. Put the verbs from the text into two columns: regular verbs and irregular verbs. Find these verbs in the sentences in the text and translate them.
penetrate become seek pay acquaint rule seem come originate lie rise forget know explore make name XI. Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs in the correct form. One verb can be used more than once.
• have • differ • be • live • divide • develop • include • identify 1) Some ethic groups _ physically from others.
2) Material culture _ all the physical objects that people make.
3) Political boundaries _ the world into more than 160 different nations.
4) Many nations similar traditions and even ceremonies.
5) People _ their homes in every geographic regions.
6) The population mostly in towns and cities.
7) The main field crops _ wheat, barley, and oats.
8) Britain _ a long tradition of efficient shipbuilding.
9) All human groups some kind of art, music and religion.
10) Every map distortions that are inevitable in the process of illustrating the earth’s spherical surface on a flat map.
11) Globes and maps _ useful models of the earth.
12) The climate _ the most important factor of soil formation.
13) Waterfalls _ due to many causes.
XII. Put the verbs into the correct form Present Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) Scientists _ (work) now on a program “Siberia’s Forests”.
2) Lately East Siberia (have) spells of unusual warm weather in the fall.
3) Language always (change) and (develop).
4) International trade (be) always important in Britain.
5) The movement of people from rural to urban areas _ (take) place for thousand of years.
6) Scientists _ (study) the surface of the earth for centuries.
7) Geographers _ (divide) the world into several cultural regions.
8) The temperature gap between the equator and the poles (narrow) gradually.
9) With the general warming of the atmosphere damp air (move) to Europe from the Atlantic.
10) Protecting wetlands (become) a special concern of many countries.
11) Volcanic eruptions _ (kill) nearly 200.000 people in the last years.
12) The problem of distortion _ (remain) the major disadvantage of maps.
13) Today many people (work) to protect this vital resource.
XIII. Comment on the following statements. Write 5-7 sentences.
a. What science gives us a description of the earth b. Our time is the era of organized research in geography.
TEST II Grammar: Adjectives.
Simple, Continuous, Perfect (Passive Voice) I. Look through the text attentively to understand its main ideas. Suggest an alternative title to the text.
Nature and humanity both exist on the same Earth, and form an integral system. People live in constant interaction with the elements of nature, and use its resources.
Humanity is affecting nature not more than any other species; its biological size is relatively small. But by its activities human society is vigorously transforming nature. As a result of humanity’s rapid demographic and social development, the environment is now developing into a new and more complicated system; its evolution is actually different from that of the untouched wilderness. This unnatural evolutionary process is occurring at a considerably faster rate than is natural evolutionary development.
It must be admitted that today one modern person can affect nature more than thousands of primitive people could in the past. The earth is being transformed by the appearance of urban and industrial zones, the cultivation of land, the extermination of forests, the creation of artificial bodies of water, and so forth. Such transformed areas now comprise over 20 per cent of the planet’s surface. This has caused noticeable changes in the earth’s thermal and water balances.
In a number of countries the oxygen consumption in industry and transport has already exceeded the amount that is being generated by the plants in these countries.
More than 100 thousand million tons of raw materials are extracted annually from the entrails of the earth; this is more than 25 tons per person per year. The greatest part of them turns into wastes polluting the environment.
Pollutants are damaging the natural balance of chemical elements in the biosphere, filling it with pesticides, synthetic materials, and radioactive elements, which decompose very slowly and which can be accumulated in living organisms.
Millions of tons of oil products are being thrown into the Ocean. The atmosphere and waters are being polluted by industrial and gasoline exhaust. The decrease in the extent of tropical woods, soil erosion, the desertification of productive lands, and certain countries’ delayed growth in agricultural production is a cause for deep concern. At present, we are in the process of losing approximately one thousand animal species and two and a half thousand plant species.
The current relationship which exists between man and nature is the vital problem that must be solved. Each nation must possess certain preserved natural territories, corresponding to its resources and needs, which will provide for the development of its society at the optimum level. These lands and water areas are to be kept under a special regime and isolated in order to protect the region’s ecological potential, to preserve the genetic fund and the reproduction and growth of natural resources, to improve the environment and recreational areas, and to provide scientific information about natural complexes- standards of the region’s natural state.
II. Read and translate the text. Translate parts 2, 4, 5, 6 in written form.
III. Explain the meaning of the following.
• form an integral system • urban zones • relatively small • industrial wastes • untouched wilderness • deep concern • noticeable changes • vital problem • entrails of the earth • possess • decompose • provide for IV. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.
1) One modern person can’t affect nature more than thousands of primitive people could in the past.
2) At present we are losing two thousand of animal species.
3) People and animal species both exist on the earth and form an integral system.
4) All kinds of pollutants are damaging the natural balance filling it with synthetic materials.
5) Each nation must possess certain industrial zones.
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