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46 3 Instructions You are a committee appointed to set up a PART 1 primary school in a remote village in tropical Africa, where no school has existed before, for about sixty children ranging in age from eight Can to fourteen. You have three trained teachers and three or four young people from the village who have finished their high school education and are willing to help. You have no buildings, enough money for Ex. 1. Translate into Russian the following sentences with the modal only the crudest equipment, and will have to improvise. verb can denoting physical, mental or circumstantial ability.

Roles: 1. The letters had been hastily opened. Edwin could see them lying in -The head teacher, dedicated and enthusiastic, but perhaps over- disorder on the desk in his little office. (Updike) 2. Interesting ambitious. book. - Very. Im counting the minutes until I can resume its -An older teacher of some experience, wise, but rather sceptical and perusal undisturbed. (P. W.) 3. We couldnt afford the cruise, and we defeatist. cant afford to go away to a hotel. (Went.) 4. One of Lifes little -A young teacher fresh from university, town-bred and out of touch ironies is that one cant foresee. (A. Chr.) 4. He had known with local conditions. Swinburne intimately and could talk about him in an entrancing -The head-man, eager for his village to have the school, willing to fashion, but he could also talk of Shelley, whom after all he could help, but doesnt want to offend villagers. not possibly have known, as if he had been a bosom-friend. (S. M.) 5.

-A villager, father of prospective pupils, suspicious of innovations, I lived at this time in a group of young men who had by nature would rather things stayed as thay are. gifts that seemed to me much superior to mine. They could write and -A young woman from the village, uneducated but eager to be draw and compose with a facility that aroused my envy. (S. M.) 6.

involved. Hes off to Bournemouth by the 3.30. Can you get here by train (A.

Chr.) (Points to be considered should include: finance, size and scope, Ex. 2. Supply suitable forms of be able to in these sentences.

type of students, staffing, range of subjects offered, facilities, Reminder: We use be able to for different grammatical forms that are geographical position and layout, organization, extra-curricular not possible with can.

activities, rules.) E.g. I like being able to work at home.

1. Our teacher says we speak English fluently in a few months. 2.

Ive been trying for hours, but so far I (not) get through on the phone. 3. If he had asked me earlier, I help him. 4. Im sure she would have helped you if she . 5. I think I play tennis better after a bit of practice. 6. You ski when you go to Geneva. 7. Its nice go to the opera. 8. He managed to live in England without speak English. 9. Im practising hard because I want pass my driving test first time. 10. If I sing, I would have loved to be an opera singer. 11. Its been a quiet day, I get some work done.

Ex. 3. Put in can or cant if possible; if not, use could or will be able to.

Reminder: We use can if we are deciding now what to do in the a plane future. In other cases, we have to use will be able to. a classroom E.g. I can see you tomorrow morning for half an hour. a swimming pool One day we will be able to live without wars. a national park 1. I pick it up tonight, if thats convenient. 2. I think I speak English quite well in a few months. 3. We need some more oil. IV. Language The list of modal verbs:

OK, I let you have some this week. 4. Dr Parker see you at can, must, should, ought to, have to, 12 on Tuesday. 5. She walk again in a few weeks. 6. If we took be to, need, had better.

the wheels off, we get it through the backdoor. 7. Do you think one day people travel to the stars 8. This weeks no good, but I bring the car in next week. 9. If I practised a bit, I be pretty Instructions Work in groups of 3 players and a referee in good at tennis. 10. In a few years computers think better than we each group. Each player should pick one card do. 11. She give you a lesson this evening. 12. Im free at the with a topic and one with a modal verb. Give weekend, so the kids come round. 13. Ill post your letter, but I a one-minute talk on the topic using the chosen dont think the postman read the address. 14. I do your job with modal verb in any form - interrogative, negative, no trouble at all. 15. We are busy this week, but we repair it by affirmative. If the referee accepts what was said next Thursday.

as grammatically correct, the player scores point. After that the second player takes his turn Ex. 4. Fill the following spaces using can for present, could for past and picks the card. The winner is the player and shall/will be able for future. Put to where necessary before the whose score is bigger.


1. you stand on your heard I when I was at school but I (not) now. 2. When Ive passed my driving test I hire a car from our The suggested list of topics:

local garage. 3. At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enourmous telephone bill which he (not) pay. 4. When the 1. An exciting trip.

2.The party you enjoyed.

fog lifts we see where we are. 5. Youve put too much in your 3. A present you received.

rucksack; you never carry all that. 6. When I was a child I (not) 4. Historic sites or places you have seen.

understand adults, and now that Im an adult I (not) understand 5. A book or an article youve read recently.

children. 7. When you have taken your degree you work as an 6. Ways of relaxing.

interpriter. 8. you type - Yes, I type but I (not) do shorthand.

7. Keeping fit.

9. Im locked in. I (not) get out! - you (not) squeeze between the 8. An unusual occupation.

bars - No! I ; Im too fat.

Ex. 5. Complete the sentences using could, was/were able to, succeeded in or managed to.

V. Language The list of modal verbs: can, must, should, ought Reminder: When speaking about the past we can use only was/were to, be to, have to, need, had better.

able to or managed to or succeeded in doing when referring to a one-time action. Could is not used in this case.

E.g. In his youth he could swim across the Volga. = , . 19. .

20. . 21.


. 22. He managed to swim across the Volga last year.= , . 23. , .


1. He was very strong; he ski all day and dance all night. 2. The car plunged into the river. The driver get out but the passengers were drowned. 3. you walk or did they have to carry you 4. I Communicative Exercises had no key so I advise him where to go. 5. When the garage had repaired our car we continue our journey. 6. When I arrived everyI. Language Functions: obligation, absence of necessity one was asleep. Fortunately I wake my sister and she let me in. 7.

I finish all the work you wanted me to do yesterday. 8. They were Instructions There is a new student in your group. He talking quite loudly. I hear everything they said. 9. Did they find asks you about some of the rules at the your house - Yes. It took them a long time but they find it. 10.

University. Act out the conversation with She sing like an angel. 11. She does not smoke any longer, because your partner.

I persuade her to give up smoking. 12. Happily John swim across the river, otherwise he would have drowned. 13. He was a terrific liar: he make anybody believe him. 14. I was lucky enough to buy II. Language Functions: necessity, prohibition.

a cheap but nice coat. I getting 15% off the price.

Instructions What do you dislike about TV (health service, public transport, school education, etc.) in your Ex. 6. Replace the words in italics with a suitable form of be able country Write at least 5-6 suggestions to make to.

it better. Discuss your suggestions in small ( not to be able to = to be unable) groups and present them to the whole class.

1.If we dont book seats soon, it wont be possible for us to get into the theatre.

III. Language Functions: obligation, necessity, lack of necessity, 2. In two months time we shall be in a position to give you the prohibition.

examination results.

3. The main road was under repair, but it was possible for us to take an alternative route.

Instructions Work in small groups of 3-4 students with the 4. By pretending to be ignorant of the rules, he managed to escape following list of places. Each of you must choose being punished.

one of the places, write a rule for it on a 5. Luckily we retraced our steps and succeeded in finding our way blank sheet of paper and pass it to the next again.

student. Finish your work when you have at 6. It has been impossible for me to get to the bank yet, so I havent least 5 rules for each place.

any money.

7. May I borrow this piece of material Id like to have the opportunity of showing it to my wife.

8. He took a crash course in Spanish he wanted to be in a position a hospital to speak it when he went on business to S. America.

an art gallery 9. They bought their first house last year: previously it had been impossible for them to get a loan.

10. The student said there were a few questions he had found 3. You invited some friends to dinner and spent all day preparing a impossible to ansver. wonderful meal. They telephone you at 8 p.m. to say they cannot come.

Ex. 7. Rewrite the sentences, using the adverbs suggested, so that 4. You are looking after two children while their parents are out. Its they represent the equivalent situation in past time (i. e. potential, not 11 p.m. and the children are still watching television.

actual, perfomanse). Any words in italics should be omitted in your 5. Your parents have decided to go out for a meal. You recommended answers. an excellent restaurant that never gets too crowded. They wonder whether they should reserve a table.

He can speak German fluently. ( when he was younger) He could speak German fluently when he was younger. Ex.11. Write a short paragraph on each topic.

I can give him an answer. (last week) I could have given him an answer last week. 1. Write about a time in your life when you did something you did not want to do. Why did you do it What could you have done Reminder: We use cuold have + past participle to say that someone differently What should you have done had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the past, but in fact did not do it.

E.g. (a). You could have helped me. Why didnt you = 2. Look at the world situation in relationships between nations.

. What could, should (or should not), must (or must not) be done to Can is used to indicate the posession of ability in general.

improve understanding E.g. (b). My sister can talk. = .

Can is also used to indicate the ability in particular circumstances Ex.12. Translate from Russian into English.

to perform the activity indicated by the main verb.

E.g. I can (could) give him an answer tomorrow/now. = 1. , /. (.. - . 2. , ) . 3. The equivalent of sentence (a) in the chronological past is My , . 4. sister could talk when she was eighteen months old.

. 5. . 6.

The extract equivalent in past time of sentens (b) is I could have , . 7. given him an answer yesterday. = .

. 8. ( ) . 9. . 10. . 1.He can drive a car. (when he was eighteen) 2. I find I can . 11. understand English better than I can speak it. (when I first arrived in . 12. England) 3. I can let you have the money tomorrow. (yesterday) 4.

. 13. .

You can persuade him to come, if anyone can. (last week) 5. My 14. , . 15. daughter can play the piano beautifully. (at one time) 6. You can see . , .

that he is bored to death. (at a party last night) 7. I cant get into 16. , my house. (because I had forgotten my key) 8. We can overhear every , - , word our neighbours say. (in the hotel we stayed at) 9. The doctor . 17. , can see you later today. (yesterday) 10. (when they asked my advise) . . , , o , . 18. I can suggest only one way of solving the problem. 11. I can well 5. Its your own fault that youre so tired. You (not go) to bed so understand how you feel about the situation. (at the time) 12. I cant late. get the letter translated immediately, but I could get it done by 6. Why the prisoners (be locked) in their cells all day tomorrow morning. (by the following morning) 7. You (not tell) him what happened. He would never forgive us.

8. I dont like (do) everything my boss tells me to do. Ex. 8 (a).

9. Paul (not get up) early in the morning but everyone else in the This is Robert Wells who is 62 years old now. Sometimes he feels house does. that he 10. If I fail one of my exams, I (take) all of them again in has wasted his life. Replace the words in italics with could November. have, as in the example.

11. The weddings been cancelled so I (not buy) that new suit: it was a waist of money.

12. I (take) the children to school every morning before I go to work.

13. You (not eat) in the lecture halls: its against the college regulations.

14. Id like you to come to the meeting but you (not come) if you dont want to.

E.g. When Robert was 26 he had the chance to get married, but he 15. This letter (be hidden) where no-one will ever find it. Its decided not to. => When Robert was 26 he could have got married, contents (remain) a secret forever.

but he decided not to.

16. (you / wear) a uniform at work 1. Robert had the ability to go to university, but he didnt want to go.

17. Please dont say anymore. I already know the truth so you 2. He had the intelligence to pass his final exams at school, but he didnt (not lie) to me.

take them.

18. Employees (follow) the safety regulations.

3. A lot of people thought he had the ability to be a professional footballer when he was younger, but he didnt try.

Ex. 9. Paraphrase the following. Use the verbs have to, be to.

4. He had the opportunity to start his own business once, but he didnt want to.

1. Howard gave his consent. It was the only thing to do. 2. She 5. He had the chance to emigrate to Australia a few years ago, but he arranged to meet Arthur at Claridges for lunch. 3. Their plan is to decided not to.

double the output. 4. They plan to pull down the houses to make (b). Groupwork: How old are you Do you sometimes think that you room for a park. 5. The only thing for me to do was to give in.

have also wasted your life In what ways have you wasted your life Ex. 9. Translate into English. Pay attention to whether "could" denotes Ex. 10. What would you say in the following situations Use a the past or the unreality of the action.

suitable expression of obligation.

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