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3 Word-Formation Definitions of Principal Concepts Morpheme, the smallest (ultimate) recurrent unit of the system of expression directly related to a corresponding unit of the system of content.

Root, the semantic nucleus of a word with which no grammatical properties of the word are connected.

Stem, that part of a word which remains unchanged throughout its paradigm and to which grammatical inflexions and affixes are added.

Morphological segmentation (morphological divisibility), the ability of a word to be divided into such elements as root, stem, and affix (affixes).

Lexical morpheme, generalized term for root and derivational morphemes, as expressing lexical meanings in contrast to flexional (morphemes) that express grammatical meanings.

Derivational morpheme, an affixal morpheme which, when added to the stem modifies the lexical meaning of the root and forms a new word.

Word-formation, the process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes according to certain patterns specific for the language.

Word-forming pattern, a structural and semantic formula, displaying a sequence of elements which is regularly reproduced in speech.

Derivation (affixation), such word-formation where the target word is formed by combining a stem and affixes.

Compounding (composition), such word-formation where the target word is formed by combining two or more stems.

Compound derivative (derivational compound), the result of parasynthetic word-formation, i.e. a word which is formed by a simultaneous process of derivation and composition.

Productivity, ability to form new words which are understood by the speakers of a language.

Productive, able to form new words which are understood by the speakers of a language.

Potential word, a derivative or a compound word which does not actually exist (i.e. has not appeared in any text), but which can be produced at any moment in accordance with the productive word-forming patterns of the language.

Polyfunctionality, the functional shift of lexical-grammatical characteristics of certain words as a result of their ability to be used as different parts of speech.

Lexicalisation, the development by a newly formed item new semantics contrasted with the meaning of the underlying base.

Conversion (internal derivation, derivation without affixation), a special type of derivation where the word-forming means is the paradigm of the word itself, i.e. derivation which is achieved by bringing a stem into a different formal paradigm.

Clipping, the process and the result of curtailing (the cutting off a part) of a word to one or two, usually initial syllabus.

Abbreviation, the process and the result of forming a word out of the initial elements (letters, morphemes) or of a word combination.

Blending, combining parts of two words to form one word blend (blended or portmanteau word), the result of blending.

Back-formation (regression), forming the allegedly original stem from a supposed derivative on the analogy of the existing pairs, i.e. the singling-out of a stem from a word, which is wrongly regarded as a derivative.

Word-Structure Exercise 1. Read the following sentences; analyse the words in bold type into their ultimate constituents.

1. and Im not a forgetter. 2. Morris was cheeky with words, superbly confident, but he knew the value of identical paint. 3. William undressed and lay among his heaps of luggage. His anger softened and turned to shame, then to a light melancholy, soon he fell asleep. 4. Adam telephoned his page through to the Excess, and soon after this a coloured singer appeared, paddling his black suede shoes in a pool of limelight, who excited Gingers disapproval. 5. As soon as the spoke, Mr. March resented his flirtatious air; and Mr. Marchs own manner became more formidable and at the same time more intimate. 6. Katherine still remained suspicious. For days before the dance she and Charles re-examined each clue with their native subtlety, repetitiveness, realism, and psychological quest. 7.

The question nagged at me, meaninglessly important, fretting with anxiety. 8. I recall that shortly after our first acquaintance we had an unfortunate difference of opinion upon the future of the world. 9. He loved argument: he was sometimes ashamed of the harshness that leapt to his tongue, but when he let himself go, argument made him fierce, cheerful, quite spontaneous and self-forgetful.

Exercise 2. In the following sentences determine the character of the morpheme s.

Say whether it is: 1) inflectional or b) derivational.

1. Enthusiasm works wonders. 2. There was an explosion in the glass works. 3.



There arent many authorities on physics here. 4. The project has been approved by the authorities. 5. What are the latest developments 6. Do not scatter yourself in so many directions. 7. Follow the directions. 8. He was buried with military honours. 9. When translating, translate thoughts, not words. 10. Do not exceed your powers. 11. Have the prescription filled at the chemists. 12. Its yesterdays news. 13. You get value for your money at Macys. (advertisement). 14. Sugar catches more flies than vinegar.

Affixation Prefixation Exercise 1. Below are adjectives which can combine with some of the prefixes on the left.

in- dis- experienced valuable im- mis- perfect mature ir- sub- conscious rational il- under- judged loaded un- over- valued honest normal legible 1. Which words combine with in-, im-, ir- and il- Which consonants usually follow im-, ir- and il- What is in- usually followed by (See the reference material).

2. Which words combine with un-, dis- and mis- What is the difference in meaning between these prefixes 3. Which words combine with sub-, under and over- How does the prefix change the meaning of the new word Exercise 2. Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example.

Example: Hes a very honest man. I dont agree. I think hes dishonest.

1. Im sure shes discreet. 6. Hes very efficient.

2. I always find him very sensitive. 7. I always find her responsible.

3. Its a convincing argument. 8. He seems grateful for our help.

4. Thats a very relevant point. 9. Im sure shes loyal to the firm.

5. Shes always obedient. 10. Hes a tolerant person.

Exercise 3. Three of these verbs make their opposite by adding the prefix dis- (e.g.

like dislike). Find the ones that do not.

Believe, change, approve, allow, do, lead, direct.

Exercise 4. Combine one of the prefixes in Box A with one of the words in Box B to form a new word which matches one of the definitions listed below (1-16).

A co- dis- im- in- inter- mid- mis- non- out- pre- re- self- sub- super- un- under- B active centred continental day fiction fortune gain heat human pack paid polite run satisfied standard worker 1. take your things out of a suitcase u n p a c k e d 2. rude _ 3. selfish 4. a story based on fact 5. colleague 6. happening between Europe and Asia _ 7. noon 8. not earning enough money _ 9. go faster than the other competitors in the race 10. greater than the powers of an ordinary person 11. not good enough 12. not working or moving _ 13. something unlucky _ 14. not pleased _ 15. get something back again 16. allow to get hot in advance _ Exercise 5. Make any necessary corrections to the adjectives in the sentences below. The may be either of logic or word-formation. The exercise starts with an example.

unemotional 1. The British are generally regarded as inemotional race.

2. Whats wrong You seem very uncontented with your job these days.

3. No one is completely unvulnerable to stress.

4. The police were not fooled by their unconvincing story.

5. I wouldnt trust him at all. Hes one of the most unhonest men I know.

6. They seemed unaware that there was anyone else in the room.

7. The children were impatient for the film to start.

8. I couldnt help thinking that all their lavish praise was really unsincere.

9. Im afraid Joan is very disattentive in lessons.

10. Hes not very good-looking but, there again, hes not inattractive either.

Exercise 6. Fill the blanks with the suitable prefixal antonyms of the root word suggested in brackets.

1. She was hateful, of course, but she was (resist). 2. A strange, wild, haughty looking creature! Swithin observed his clothes with some (approve). 3. He looked at his son. Now they had actually come to discuss a subject connected with the relations between the sexes he felt (trust). 4. The teacher expressed his great (content) with the works of his pupils. 5. He was still mysterious, withdrawn within himself, extraordinarily (interest) in his physical surroundings. 6. And though nine-tenth of the inhabitants never went outside the gates, the definite and absolute closing of them (moral) all hearts. 7. Do you think I dont know, said my aunt, what kind of life you must have led, that poor, unhappy (direct) baby 8. A wife has to overlook the little (perfect) in her husbands behaviour 9. There can be no (equal) in love. 10. She was thus quite (intend) an interested observer of their little interview. 11. An (distinct) idea he had, that the child was desolate and in want of help. 12. He was a man of (limit) wealth.

Exercise 7. Construct words or phrases to replace the underlined words.

Example: Hes in favour of the American approach. Hes pro-American.

1. The BBC tries to avoid pronouncing foreign words incorrectly.

2. Most people say they have to work too hard but are paid too little.

3. He dated his cheque with a date that was later than the real date.

4. Shes still on good terms with the man who used to be her husband.

5. He made so many mistakes in the letter that he had to write it again.

Exercise 8. Think of two examples for these prefixes.

Anti-, auto-, bi-, ex-, micro-, mis-, mono-, multi-, over-, post-, pro-, re-, semi-, sub-, under-.

Exercise 9. Complete the text below by inserting the word in brackets with its correct prefix.





The job advertisement had asked for a self-motivated individual with good social skills. I remember thinking that the salary wasnt brilliant, but the job didnt seem too (1) (paid) for what was required. However, I soon found out that what they wanted was a workaholic! The factory was dirty, noisy, and the work was incredibly tiring. The place was seriously (2) (staffed) ten people doing the work of fifteen and the management was lazy and (3)_ (efficient). It soon became clear that anything the factory produced was (4) (standard) as quality control was minimal. Not surprisingly, relations within the workforce were poor and it was impossible to get anybody to co-operate on projects. People were either irritable and (5)_ (patient) or just couldnt be bothered.

I remember the day I finally handed in my resignation. I tried to explain some of the problems Id experienced to senior management, and implied that some of their working practices were completely (7)_ (communicative) and (8) (interested). I was faced with a wall of silence, then more or less thrown out of the factory gates.

Suffixation Exercise 1. Match the first half of the sentence in column A with an appropriate second half in column B. The first one has been done for you.

Example: Children learn what they live.

If a child lives with criticism (7) he learns to condemn (g).

A B 1. hostility a to be patient 2. ridicule b to be shy 3. shame c to be confident 4. tolerance d to have faith 5. encouragement e to like himself 6. praise f to like justice 7. criticism g to condemn 8. fairness h to appreciate 9. security i to fight 10.approval j to feel guilty 11.acceptance and friendship k to find love in the world Exercise 2. Look at these words. Point out the derivational patterns after which they are built.

Excitability, respectability, adaptability, liberality, practicality, reality, brutality, partiality, elasticity, eccentricity, domesticity, probability, responsibility, desirability.

What s the rule Divide the words into two groups denoting: a) state, b) quality.

Exercise 3. Can you think of anything in your country which should be nationalised (e.g. banks, steel works), standardised, modernised, computerised, or centralised Exercise 4. Which word is the odd one in each group and why 1. brotherhood, neighbourhood, manhood, priesthood 2. hair-restorer, plant-holder, step-ladder, oven-cleaner 3. appointment, involvement, compliment, arrangement 4. tearful, spiteful, dreadful, handful 5. worship, kinship, friendship, partnership Exercise 5. Write the nouns that can be formed from these words:

1. announce announcement 2. try 12. solve 3. lonely 13. choose 4. destroy 14. disappoint 5. poor 15. behave 6. fit 16. thick 7. anxious 17. breathe 8. refuse 18. stupid 9. celebrate 19. relax 10. develop 20. practise 11. electric 21. imagine Exercise 6. Adjectives ending ed often form nouns with ment, but not always.

For each sentence below write another with the same meaning, converting the adjectives to nouns and making any other necessary changes. The first one has been done for you.

1. The bonus system has brought about an improved service. The cause of the improvement in the service has been the bonus system.

2. I was rather disappointed by the result. The result was _.

3. The look he gave me was more astonished than pleased. He looked at me.

4. If you take part-time work you wont be entitled to unemployment benefit. If you take part-time work youll lose.

5. The children danced around, they were so exited and delighted. The children danced around in _.

6. We stared at the scene, horrified and fascinated. We stared at the scene in.

7. Ordinary people became progressively more impoverished as a result of the adjustment policies. The adjustment policies led to the _.

8. He pushed at the locked door, surprised and annoyed. He pushed at the locked door in _.

9. I was more amused than frightened by their behaviour. Their behaviour caused me.

10. I gaped at him, utterly stupefied by what he had told me. I gaped at him in.

11. They lived there contented for many years. They lived there in _.

Exercise 7. Choose the ending which forms a noun related to the word given. Only one ending is correct.

EXPRESSIVE | -ship, -ity, -ment-, -tion, -hood, -er Exercise 8. Only one of these words can be changed to another by changing ful to less. Which one is it Example: helpful helpless Resentful, dreadful, spiteful, mindful, wonderful.

Exercise 9. Complete the sentences below with suitable nouns or adjectives formed from the words given in brackets. See the example provided.

1. Tony is a terribly competitive (compete) person.

2. Most adolescents go through periods of great (insecure).

3. Limited exposure to the suns rays can be (benefit) to health.

4. Daniel shows very little (aware) of how others see him.

5. The confusion over the diplomats names caused a great deal of (embarrass).

6. Although she appeared calm, you could hear the (anxious) in her voice.

7. Ive always regarded him as a man of great (sincere).

8. Monica was always very (resent) of the fact that she was never given the chance of going to university.

9. Im really fed up with her air of superiority shes just so (dismiss) of everyone elses ideas.

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