4 Министерство образования Российской Федерации Воронежский государственный университет Английский язык I. Контрольные работы по английскому языку Специальность 350700 реклама ГСЭ.Ф. 01 иностранный язык Воронеж 2004 5 Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета журналистики (16 января 2004 г., протокол № 1) Составители:
Т.Н. Степкина Е.Н. Шамаева Учебное пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка факультета РГФ ВГУ. Рекомендуется для студентов 2 курса заочного отделения факультета журналистики.
6 От составителей Контрольные работы составлены в соответствии с требованиями, предъявляемыми к уровню подготовки выпускников неязыковых факультетов вузов.
По завершении курса обучения студенты должны уметь:
- читать со словарем тексты (страноведческого, общенаучного содержания, а также тематически связанные с будущей профессией студента);
- читать без словаря тексты страноведческого и общеобразовательного содержания с целью извлечения общей информации;
- уметь участвовать в беседе на темы, касающиеся повседневной жизни, учебы и будущей профессиональной деятельности, соблюдать правила речевого этикета;
- уметь выражать свои мысли, используя правила английской грамматики и усвоенный лексический запас;
- получить представление о культурных традициях (общая и профессиональная культура) и правилах речевого этикета в странах изучаемого языка.
Выполнение и оформление контрольных работ должно проводиться следующим образом:
1. Письменные контрольные задания следует выполнять в отдельной тетради. На ее обложке студент должен написать свою фамилию, номер контрольной работы и название учебника (-ов), по которому (-ым) он занимался.
2. Контрольные работы надо писать аккуратно и четко, оставляя поля для замечаний и методических указаний рецензента.
3. Выполненные работы необходимо отправлять для проверки и рецензирования в университет, строго соблюдая установленные сроки.
Control work I II. Read the following words and expressions.
technique – приём commercial – реклама therefore – поэтому identify – определять selling message – довод в пользу приобретения рекламируемого товара copy – рекламный текст human – человек process – обрабатывать however – однако even though – даже если psychological – психологический appeal – призыв, довод, мотив, концепция confident – уверенный III. Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What can you tell about time and space limits in advertising 2. Why does advertising often break the rules of grammar, image and society 3. What parts does an advertisement have 4. What does the advertiser take into account presenting the sales message 5. How do humans process the information (copy, drawings and paintings) 6. Why is a photograph an efficient advertising technique 7. What are the two basic ways of presenting a sales message 8. How do TV commercials differ from ads in magazines or newspapers 9. Is emotional presentation often used in effective ads 10. What needs does the ad with emotional presentation focus on BASIC ADVERTISING TECHNIQUES 1. One of the first principles that you must understand in advertising is that it is limited in both time and space. Television and radio commercials are usually only 10 to 60 seconds long. Print ads are usually no larger than two pages, and usually much smaller. Therefore, an advertisement must do its job quickly.
It must get the consumer's attention, identify the product, and deliver the selling message in a small time or space. In order to do this, advertising often breaks the rules of grammar, image, and even society.
2. The second basic point is that advertisements usually have two parts:
copy and illustrations. Copy refers to the words in the advertisement. These words give the sales message. Illustrations are the pictures or photographs. Most ads are a combination of copy and illustration. Some advertisements have small illustrations and a lot of copy. Some are only an illustration with the name of the product.
3. The decision about how much copy and illustration to use depends on how the advertiser wants to present the sales message. Understanding how advertisers make this decision is complex. First you must understand how humans process, or work with, information because we do not process all kinds of information in the same way. We process some kinds of information intellectually. In other words, we think about the information in order to understand it. We process other kinds of information emotionally. This means we use feelings rather than thinking to understand the information.
4. We generally process copy in ads intellectually. That is because both reading and listening are thinking processes. These thinking processes translate symbols (written words) or sounds (spoken words) into meaning. Of course, words, especially if they are spoken, can be very emotional — they can bring memories that make you laugh or cry. However, even though spoken words are often very emotional, we must first translate them. In other words, we do not see words as reality.
5. The mind also interprets drawings and paintings intellectually. Like words, drawings and paintings are not the things themselves, but an artist's idea of them. The viewer must translate the lines, colors and shapes into meaning.
Illustrations can have a lot of emotion, but again they are not reality.
6. In order to understand this idea better, think of a well-know painting such as The 3rd of May 1808 in Madrid: The Executions on Principe Pio Hill by Goya. This painting upsets many people. However, think of the same scene in a photograph. Most people would find the photograph even more disturbing. That is because we process photographs emotionally. To us, they are real. Therefore, photographs do not need translation. Research supports this idea. It shows that photographs attract more readers, are more believable and remembered better than illustrations.
7. Just as there are two kinds of mental processes, there are two basic ways of presenting a sales message: intellectually and emotionally. An intellectual presentation uses ideas to get a consumer to buy a product or service. For example, computer buyers usually do not think about what the machine looks like or the effect it might have on their social life. They are looking for technical information. How fast does the computer work How large is its memory 8. Advertisements that present a message intellectually have a lot of copy.
The copy explains the uses and benefits of the product or service. In addition, such ads are not usually seen on television because television ads are very short.
It requires time and careful thinking to understand a message which contains a lot of ideas. These kinds of ads usually appear in magazines or newspapers where the consumer has unlimited time to process the information.
9. Ads with an intellectual presentation usually have few illustrations. If they have any illustrations, they will probably be drawings or paintings. In this way, both parts of the ad are processed in the same way. If they have photographs, the photographs will usually be simple, with little emotional content, usually showing only what the product looks like.
10. The second basic way to present a sales message is emotionally. In an emotional presentation, the use of the product is often not the most important sales message. Instead, the ad focuses on the buyer's social, psychological or economic needs. For example, an emotional ad may show how the product or service will make the consumers’ social life better by increasing their appeal, making them feel more confident, or making them rich. Some of the most effective ads today are ones that use an emotional presentation.
IV. Translate Parts 1, 2 and 3 into Russian in the written form.
V. Write out from the text all advertising terms. Use them in your own sentences.
VI. Give the main advantages and disadvantages of a) television commercials;
b) radio commercials;
c) print ads.
VII. Compare Russian and foreign commercials you often see over TV. (Write 5-8 sentences) VIII. What will you as a prospective advertising agent tell the viewers who are annoyed by the aggressively increasing TV advertising (Write 5-8 sentences) Control work II I. Read the following words and expressions.
durable goods – товары длительного пользования flagship brands – лидирующие марки detergent – моющее средство reason – причина brand consistency – постоянство (неизменность) марки obstacle – препятствие unprocessed food – непереработанные продукты prohibit – запрещать acceptable – приемлемый, допустимый partial nudity – полуобнажённая фигура II. Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What goods and brands are known across borders 2. Are the marketing strategy and ad campaign of such goods different or the same in different countries 3. Can you give examples of products, which have standardized marketing campaigns 4. What advertisements are used in global marketing 5. Do global media help to create a global market 6. Does international travel promote global marketing 7. Is a standardized approach suitable for marketing unprocessed food 8. What strategies are usually used for this kind of product 9. What variations in advertising the product may be observed in different countries 10. How does advertising in Asia differ from that in Europe 11. Should ads reflect local culture 12. Do you think that foreign commercials may lead to the colonization of Russian culture GLOBAL MARKETING AND ADVERTISING There are some products that can be marketed around the globe without much variation in the marketing strategy or ad campaign.
These are usually durable goods that vary little between markets (e.g., machine parts) or flagship brands that are known across borders. One example of such a brand is Coca-Cola. Coke uses the same strategy from country to country and it often uses the same commercial, just translating them into different languages. Other products that have standardized marketing campaigns include Unilever detergents, Marlboro cigarettes, Perrier water, Kellogg's Frosted Flakes, Pond's skin creams, Ajax cleaners, Canada Dry mixers, Exxon oil, Levi's blue jeans, and British Airways. This trend toward standardized marketing is growing.
Reasons There are several reasons why companies are turning to global marketing. First of all, it is less expensive. It saves time and money if a company only needs to translate its advertisements in different markets. Second, a unified market is growing across country borders. This market is created in part by global media, such as Rupert Murdoch's Sky Channel, Ted Turner's TBS channel, CNN, and Music Box and MTV, which are both music video channels show the same programs everywhere. A new generation of consumers follows the same trends whether they live in Sweden or Colombia. Third, as consumers increase their international travel, companies want them to recognize their products across country lines. As the world gets smaller, companies try to maintain brand consistency.
Obstacles There are, however, obstacles to the global strategy. Some of the obstacles relate to the products themselves. Certain products, such as unprocessed foods, are difficult to market through a standardized approach. People don't change eating habits readily. Companies usually need to use local strategies for this kind of product. Other obstacles relate to the ad campaigns. Some countries limit or altogether prohibit commercials on TV. A company that depends on a standardized TV ad may have to adapt its ad to other media in these countries.
Also many countries require local participation in advertisements so that often ads must be remade locally. Countries also vary on what they consider acceptable advertising material. In the United States and Asia, partial nudity in general advertising is not acceptable; in western Europe it is. Finally, some countries prohibit advertisements that do not reflect local culture, as they fear colonization of the local culture.
III. Use the following words and word combinations in your own sentences (or reproduce the sentences with them from the text).
Market round the globe, durable goods, flagship brands, unified market, global media, follow the trend, maintain brand consistency, prohibit commercials on TV, acceptable advertising material, colonization of the local culture.
IV. How you as a prospective ad maker can answer the following questions (Write 3-5 sentences on each of them) 1. In what way do you think TV contributes to a global market 2. Do you know any other recent technical developments that contribute to rapid world communication How will these new developments affect the new global market 3. What age group often is the target of global marketing As this market grows older do you think it will continue to have uniform tastes Why don't the companies try to market to the older generations 4. Has your government tried to restrict any advertising campaigns What do you think of such restrictions 5. Do you think global marketing and advertising can affect local culture If so how 6. Do you think local culture can be expressed in advertising If so, how V. What is you idea of an effective ad (commercial) Give an example and the arguments to support your choice. (3-sentences) Control work III I. Read the following words and expressions.
pin down the meaning – определить значение vague word – слово с расплывчатым значением excellence – высокое качество, превосходство define – определять selling points – характеристики товара durability – прочность, долговечность craftsmanship – высокое качество исполнения dependability – надёжность virtue – достоинство, хорошее качество emphasize – подчёркивать manufactured goods – промышленные товары II. Read the text and answer the questions.
1. Why is it difficult to define the word quality 2. What does this word mean to different people 3. Why does the meaning of this word change over the years 4. What points were emphasized in the ad of 1897 5. What points are emphasized now WHAT QUALITY MEANS Even the dictionary finds it difficult to pin down the meaning of the word quality. It has to use other vague words like excellence. Why is quality so hard to define Is it because it is such an
word and can mean so many different things Or because its meaning depends so much on what it describes How can you define high quality when applied to the things you buy, for example, a pop record, a pair of shoes, a meal in a restaurant You'll probably have three different definitions of quality for the three different things.
Quality is also hard to define because it can be such a subjective word – it means quite different things to different people, even when they use the word to describe the same thing. A Pink Floyd album may in your view have quality, but your friend may consider that the same album is a waste of good money.
Yet another problem is that the meaning of quality changes over the years.
Things which you think have quality may not be seen in the same way by older people. Just ask your grandmother what she thinks of the Stones For example, consider the two ads. Both advertise clothes for men. Advertisers stress the points which they think sell quality to prospective buyers. The selling points that are stressed in 1897 ad are durability, craftsmanship, dependability, tradition.
What about the ideas of quality in the present-day ad Present-day ads do not talk about tradition or craftsmanship, dependability or durability. They stress the virtues of newness, of being different, sometimes of being way out. Cheapness may be, emphasized too, the fact that almost everyone can afford the product. Does this mean that quality in manufactured goods is disappearing now that most things are mass-produced III. Look through the text and find all sentences with the word “quality” in them.
IV. Look through the text and find the endings of the following sentences:
1. A Pink Floyd album may...
2. The selling points which are stressed...
3. Yet another problem is that...
4. Advertisers stress the point...
5. Things which you think have quality...
6. Cheapness may be emphasized...
V. Translate the text into Russian in the written form.
VI. Put the following sentences into the order in which they occur in the text.
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